For examination of ear, proper illumination is a pre requisite. Diseases related to ear may lead to altered sense of hearing and may affect normal balance system. If students are taught to examine ear using a check list, they may perform better. To teach ear examination to undergraduate students using a check list. Total 50 undergraduate students of M.B.B.S. attending E.N.T. clinic in Chirayu Medical College and Hospital were included in the study. They were given enrolment no. 1 to 50 and were divided into two groups. Group 1, enroll. no. 1 to 25 and group 2, enroll. no. 26 to 50. Group 1 was taught using check list and the Group 2 was taught without use of checklist. Both the groups were evaluated using check list. The group B students were again taught, using check list and were again evaluated using check list. Use of check list showed that there was statistically significant improvement in learning by students using check list in group 1 students compared to group 2 students who were taught without use of check list. The group 2 students also had improvement on evaluation, after they were taught using check list. Study suggests that use of check list for ear examination skill to undergraduate students has significant role and students learn better than when taught without use of checklist. Inclusion of checklist for teaching ear examination to undergraduate students may be considered.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Clack GB (1994) Medical graduates evaluate the effectiveness of their education. Med Educ 28:418–431
Remmen R, Denekens J, Scherpbier A, Hermann I, van der Vleuten C, van Royen P, Bossaert L (2000) An evaluation study of the didactic quality of clerkships. Med Educ 34:460–464
Sanson-Fisher RW, Rolfe IE, Williams N (2005) Competency based teaching: the need for a new approach to teaching clinical skills in the undergraduate medical education course. Med Teach 27(1):29–36
Williams S, Dale J, Glucksman E, Wellesley A (1997) Senior house officers’ work related stressors, psychological distress, and confidence in performing clinical tasks in accident and emergency: a questionnaire study. BMJ 314:713–718
Bradley P, Bligh J (2004) Setting up and running clinical skills learning programmes. Med Educ Clin Teach 1(2):53–58
Bradley P, Bligh J (1999) One year’s experience with a clinical skills resource centre. Med Educ 33:114–120
Bradley P, Bligh J (2005) Clinical skills centres: where are we going? Med Educ 39:649–650
Bradley P, Postlethwaite K (2003) Setting up a clinical skills learning facility. Med Educ 307(Suppl. 1):6–13
Nomura Y (1982) A needle oto scope. An instrument of endotoscopy of the middle ear. Acta Otolaryngol 93(1–2):73–79
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
None. No animal or Human Experimentation was done.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Appendix 1: Ear Examination Check List
Explains the procedure to the patient
Explains that an instrument will be used, but it will not be painful.
Prepares to examine:
Sits down close alongside or in front of the patient;
Positions the patient so that her/ his ear faces the student squarely.
Selects the speculum which fits snugly into the patient’s external ear opening and fits it to the otoscope.
Takes up the otoscope and switches it on—should use the right hand for the right ear examination and left hand for the left ear.
Retracts the pinna upwards and backwards, to bring the cartilaginous canal into line with the bony canal.
Places the speculum and otoscope into the external meatus (no deeper than 1 cm) and looks through it.
Examines the external ear canal and comments on:
Its contents (wax, secretions, foreign bodies).
Its walls (smooth, pinkish, dry).
Examines the eardrum and comments on:
Whether it is intact (normal: no perforations).
Its colour (normal: pearly grey).
Cone of light (normal: shiny—a cone, from the centre forwards and downwards).
The handle of the malleus.
Checks hearing using whispered voice.
Occludes opposite ear and lips not visible.
Performs Weber test.
Absolute Bone Conduction test.
Communicates the findings of the examination briefly to the patient.
About this article
Cite this article
Jain, S., Jain, A.K. Teaching Ear Examination Skill to Undergraduate Students Using Check List. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 71, 1529–1534 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-019-01596-z
- Check list
- Ear examination
- Under graduate students