Theory in Biosciences

, Volume 137, Issue 1, pp 17–31 | Cite as

Bijective codon transformations show genetic code symmetries centered on cytosine’s coding properties

Original Article

Abstract

Homology of some RNAs with template DNA requires systematic exchanges between nucleotides. Such exchanges produce ‘swinger’ RNA along 23 bijective transformations (nine symmetric, X ↔ Y; and 14 asymmetric, X → Y → Z → X, for example A ↔ C and A → C → G → A, respectively). Here, analyses compare amino acids coded by swinger-transformed codons to those coded by untransformed codons, defining coding invariance after transformations. Swinger transformations cluster according to coding invariance in four groups characterized by transformations into cytosine (C = C, T → C, A → C, and G → C). C’s central mutational coding role shows that swinger transformations constrained genetic code genesis. Coding invariance post-transformations correlate positively/negatively with mitochondrial swinger transcription/lepidosaurian body temperature. Presumably, low/high temperatures stabilize/revert rare swinger polymerization modes, producing long swinger sequences/point mutations, respectively. Coding invariance after swinger transformations might compensate effects of swinger polymerizations in species with low body temperatures. Hypothetically, swinger transcription increased coding potential of RNA self-replicating protolife systems under heating/cooling cycles.

Keywords

Rumer’s transformation Circular codes Abyssal hydrothermal vent 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work has been carried out thanks to the support of the A*MIDEX Project (No. ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02. funded by the « Investissements d’Avenir » French Government program, managed by the French National Research Agency (ANR) and by the Méditerranée Infection and the National Research Agency under the program “Investissements d’avenir” reference ANR-10-IAHU-03.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Émergentes, Faculté de Médecine, URMITE CNRS-IRD 198, UMR 6236Université de la MéditerranéeMarseilleFrance
  2. 2.Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life SciencesThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael

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