Accurate extraction of the boundaries of urban built-up areas (UBA) based on remote sensing and GIS technology is extremely important for predicting urban spatial evolution. Therefore, this study proposes a method for extracting urban built-up areas based on the impervious surface aggregation density (ISAD) of an object and uses the long-time series of the built-up area extraction results to analyze the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of Beijing cities. The results show that the precision for extracting UBA using this method is 91.3%, which is better than that of existing methods based on supervised classification. The extraction results can also accurately depict the urban form and maintain the integrity of the built-up areas. Built-up areas in Beijing expanded from 1984 to 2018, with the most significant expansion in 2014–2018. In these 5 years, the expansion speed and intensity of Beijing respectively reached 270.70 km2/a and 1.65%, which were 2.43 times that of the entire research period. Built-up areas in Beijing have been expanding past their original limits over time in a ‘centralized concentric circle’ expansion model. The focus of the UBA moved northeast by 11.56 km. In the past 35 years, the contours of Beijing’s urban borders have become increasingly complex, and the spatial form of built-up areas has become increasingly discrete. The analysis of the spatial evolution of UBA is beneficial for more sustainable, compact and coordinated urban development.
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This work is founded by Shandong Natural Science Foundation (ZR2018MD008), the Open Research Funding Program of KLGIS (KLGIS2016A01), the National Natural Science Foundation of China  and the National Natural Science Foundation of China . We also would like to thank the Centre for Earth Observation and Digital Earth of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, who kindly provided the Landsat 8 imagery used in this study, within the framework of a sharing program for earth observation data.
Author Contributions Statement
Conceptualization: Chenglong Yin, Fei Meng; Methodology: Chenglong Yin, Fei Meng, Lin Guo, Yuxuan Zhang, Zhan Zhao; Formal analysis and investigation: Chenglong Yin, Fei Meng, Huaqiao Xing, Guobiao Yao; Writing - original draft preparation: Chenglong Yin, Fei Meng, Lin Guo; Writing - review and editing: Chenglong Yin, Fei Meng, Yuxuan Zhang, Guobiao Yao; Funding acquisition: Fei Meng, Huaqiao Xing; Resources: Fei Meng; Supervision: Fei Meng.
The authors have no relevant financial interests in the manuscript and no other potential conflicts of interest to disclose.
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Yin, C.L., Meng, F., Guo, L. et al. Extraction and Evolution Analysis of Urban Built-Up Areas in Beijing, 1984–2018. Appl. Spatial Analysis (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12061-021-09374-7
- Urban boundaries
- Urban sprawl
- Landsat images
- Remote sensing