Forecasting residential electricity consumption: a bottom-up approach for Brazil by region


In this paper, we forecast residential electricity consumption in Brazil considering the variability in consumption behavior in different regions. In order to do so, we use a bottom-up approach to estimate long-term electricity consumption that considers three technology-driven scenarios: one assuming reference efficiency development, another one based on the Brazilian government’s predictions, and the third one assuming high efficiency. The results show an increase of residential electricity consumption due to the increasing appliance ownership rate, especially air conditioning, as well as the increasing number of households. In addition, it is shown that 96 TWh of electricity could be saved in the highest efficiency scenario due to significant efficiency gains between 2016 and 2050. Further, the results indicate the southeast of the country has the highest potential for consumption reduction: by 27% in the most efficient scenario. This work is the first to use a bottom-up approach to forecast the residential electricity consumption by region and by technology-driven scenarios in Brazil. With this methodology, it is possible to indicate which types of appliances should be targeted by policy makers when designing energy efficiency incentives. Hence, this model can be used as a roadmap to achieve the desired efficiency gains in Brazil.

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    Considering 2016 values (US$ 1.00 = R$ 3.63).

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    FORECAST (FORecasting Energy Consumption Analysis and Simulation Tool) is a modeling platform that captures the final energy consumption of the industry, residential, tertiary, transport, and agriculture sector (


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The authors would like to thank the R&D program of the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL) for the financial support (PD-7625-0003/2014). They also thank the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) for the doctoral financial support, and the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) (research project 443595/2014-3) and FAPERJ (research projects E-26/202.806/2015 and E-26/201.912/2015) for their support.

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Table 8 Overview of policies and measures addressing energy efficiency in the Brazilian residential sector

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Maçaira, P., Elsland, R., Oliveira, F.C. et al. Forecasting residential electricity consumption: a bottom-up approach for Brazil by region. Energy Efficiency 13, 911–934 (2020).

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  • Electricity consumption by region
  • Residential sector
  • Brazil
  • Bottom-up approach
  • Analysis by geographical regions