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Table 1 Potential for demand response for the EU Scenario of 90 TWh data centre energy use in 2030

From: Data centres in future European energy systems—energy efficiency, integration and policy

Demand response (GW)a2030
Theoretical upper limit based on Koronen (2018)b8 to 18 GW
Current practical potential based on Ghatikar et al. (2012)c2.5 to 3.5 GW
  1. aResponse rates are rapid (2 to 20 min according to Ghatikar et al. (2012)) and the demand response (DR) is available for a period varying from less than 1 h up to 1 day
  2. bKoronen (2018) estimated the theoretical limits of DR on the EU level assuming a centralized and common DR response of all data centres, which is highly unlikely. The DR potential can be separated into “time shifting” (batch loads) and “geographic shifting” (interactive loads)
  3. cGhatikar et al. (2012) is based on current market regimes and on automated response markets that do not interrupt data centre operations in any way. The calculation is based on the assumption that 25–35% of the average power use can be demand response