Energy Efficiency

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 1009–1021 | Cite as

Carbon dioxide emissions by tetrafuel technology vehicles (gasoline-ethanol-NGV) with air conditioning on and off

  • Theles de Oliveira Costa
  • Ramon Molina Valle
Original Article


This research aims to estimate and compare CO2 emissions from fuel consumption by motor vehicles operating with different types of fuel, such as gasoline (E00), gasoline blended with 25% anhydrous ethyl alcohol fuel (E25), hydrous ethanol, and natural gas vehicles (NGV), as well as showing the impacts of the air conditioning of the vehicle on CO2 emissions. The CO2 emissions from the fuel consumption of a vehicle with tetrafuel technology in roller dynamometer that simulates an urban path and road are estimated. The tests were carried out on a climate chamber under controlled conditions, and the results were corrected for a default condition, 101,325 kPa and 20 °C. The study demonstrates that CO2 emissions, by the very burning of liquid and gaseous fuels in an Otto cycle engine, essentially depends on the mechanical characteristics of the propellant, on the specific weight of the fuel, and the conditions of operation of the vehicle and not only of the calorific value of fuel. The results showed that the NGV fuel, to deliver the same torque and power of ethanol to the motor of the vehicle, would be producing 13.5% more of CO2 in urban areas and at least 9.5% on the road with the air conditioning system turned off. With the air conditioning system turned on, the four kinds of fuels in urban route conditions showed similar values of CO2 as in the road; the NGV that presented CO2 emissions is in about 12% more than other fuels, which had equivalent values. For a vehicle to achieve its best performances in combustion and reduce its CO2 emissions, it is necessary to have an individualized propellant, prepared specifically for the type of fuel it might be using.


Greenhouse effect Vehicular emissions Fuel consumption Pollution Carbon dioxide 



The authors are grateful to FCA Fiat Chrysler Automobiles for making laboratories, of the vehicle, and measurement instrumentation for the execution of the tests. Thanks are given to UFMG for technical and scientific support in particular to the Department Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering DEMEC.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theles de Oliveira Costa
    • 1
  • Ramon Molina Valle
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

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