Energy Efficiency

, Volume 7, Issue 5, pp 791–810 | Cite as

Energy efficiency technologies for sustainable food processing

  • Lijun WangEmail author
Review Article


Energy conservation is vital for the sustainable development of food industry. Energy efficiency improvement and waste heat recovery in the food industry have been a focus to increase the sustainability of food processing in the past decades. Replacement of conventional energy-intensive food processes with novel technologies such as novel thermodynamic cycles and non-thermal and novel heating processes provides another potential to reduce energy consumption, reduce production costs, and improve the sustainability of food production. Some novel food processing technologies have been developed to replace traditional energy-intensive unit operations for pasteurization and sterilization, evaporation and dehydration, and chilling and freezing in the food industry. Most of the energy conservation technologies can readily be transferred from other manufacturing sectors to the food processing sector.


Sustainable food processing Energy efficiency Waste heat recovery Non-thermal food processing Heat pump Heat pipe Novel refrigeration cycles 


  1. Adapa, P. K., & Schoenau, G. J. (2005). Re-circulating heat pump assisted continuous bed drying and energy analysis. International Journal of Energy Research, 29, 961–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akpinar, E. K. (2004). Energy and exergy analyses of drying of red pepper slices in a convective type dryer. Int. Comm Heat and Mass Transfer, 31, 1165–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akpinar, E. K., Midilli, A., & Bicer, Y. (2005). Energy and exergy of potato drying process via cyclone type dryer. Energy Conversion and Management, 46, 2530–2552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akpinar, E. K., Midilli, A., & Bicer, Y. (2006). The first and second law analyses of thermodynamic of pumpkin drying process. Journal of Food Engineering, 72, 320–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhattacharyya, S. C., & Ussanarassamee, A. (2004). Decomposition of energy and CO2 intensities of Thai industry between 1981 and 2000. Energy Economics, 26, 765–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, Z. K., Fryer, P. J., Norton, I. T., Bakalis, S., & Bridson, R. H. (2008). Drying of foods using supercritical carbon dioxide—investigations with carrot. Innovative Food and Emerging Technologies, 9, 280–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carneiro, L., dos Santos Sa, I., dos Santos Gomes, F., Matta, V. M., & Cabral, L. M. C. (2002). Cold sterilization and clarification of pineapple juice by tangential microfiltration. Desalination, 148, 93–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cassano, A., Conidi, C., & Drioli, E. (2011). Clarification and concentration of pomegranate juice (Punica granatum L.) using membrane process. Journal of Food Engineering, 107, 366–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaudhry, H. N., Hughes, B. R., & Ghani, S. A. (2012). A review of heat pipe systems for heat recovery and renewable energy applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 2249–2259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colak, N., & Hepbasli, A. (2007). Performance analysis of drying of green olive in a tray dryer. Journal of Food Engineering, 80, 1188–1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Corzo, O., Bracho, N., Vasquez, A., & Pereira, A. (2008). Energy and exergy analyses of thin layer drying of coroba slices. Journal of Food Engineering, 86, 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dincer, I., & Sahin, A. Z. (2004). A new model for thermodynamic analysis of a drying process. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 47, 645–652.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Einstein, D., Worrell, E., & Khrushch, M. (2001) Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Paper LBNL-49081. online:
  14. EUROSTAT. (2013) Final energy consumption by industry. Online:
  15. Farkas, J. (2006). Irradiation for better foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17, 148–152.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  16. Fischer, J. R., Blackman, J. E., & Finnell, J. A. (2007). Industry and energy: challenges and opportunities. Resource: Engineering &Technology for a Sustainable World, 4, 8–9.Google Scholar
  17. Fritzson, A., & Berntsson, T. (2006). Efficient energy use in a slaughter and meat processing plant—opportunities for process integration. Journal of Food Engineering, 76, 594–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goh, L. J., Othman, M. Y., Mat, S., Ruslan, H., & Sopian, K. (2011). Review of heat pump systems for drying application. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 4788–4796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heinz, V., Toepfl, S., & Knorr, D. (2003). Impact of temperature on lethality and energy efficiency of apple juice pasteurization by pulsed electric fields treatment. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 4, 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huang, L., & Sites, J. (2007). Automatic control of a microwave heating process for in-package pasteurization of beef frankfurters. Journal of Food Engineering, 80, 226–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Icier, F., & Ilicali, C. (2005). Temperature dependent electrical conductivities of fruit purees during ohmic heating. Food Research International, 38, 1135–1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. James, C., Araujo, M., Carvalho, A., & James, J. (2005). The heat pipe and its potential for enhancing the cooking and cooling of meat joints. Internal Journal of Food Science and Technology, 40, 419–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jaturonglumlert, S., & Kiatsiriroat, T. (2010). Heat and mass transfer in combined convective and far-infrared drying of fruit leather. Journal of Food Engineering, 100, 254–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jun, S., & Sastry, S. (2005). Modeling and optimization of ohmic heating of foods inside a flexible package. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 28, 417–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ketteringham, L., & James, S. (2000). The use of high thermal conductivity inserts to improve the cooling of cooked foods. Journal of Food Engineering, 45, 49–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kiatsiriroat, T., & Tachajapong, W. (2002). Analysis of a heat pump with solid desiccant tube bank. International Journal of Energy Research, 26, 527–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kumar, A., Croteau, S., & Kutowy, O. (1999). Use of membranes for energy efficient concentration of dilute steams. Applied Energy, 64, 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuzgunkaya, E. H., & Hepbasli, A. (2007). Exergetic performance assessment of a ground-source heat pump drying system. International Journal of Energy Research, 31, 760–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lado, B. H., & Yousef, A. E. (2002). Alternative food-preservation technologies: efficacy and mechanisms. Microbes and Infection, 4, 433–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lakshmi, S., Chakkaravarthi, A., Subramanian, R., & Singh, V. (2007). Energy consumption in microwave cooking of rice and its comparison with other domestic appliances. Journal of Food Engineering, 78, 715–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Loaharanu, P. (1996). Irradiation as a cold pasteurization process of food. Veterinary Parasitology, 64, 71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manas, P., & Pagan, R. (2005). Microbial inactivation by new technologies of food preservation. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98, 1387–1399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marra, F., Zhang, L., & Lyng, J. G. (2009a). Radio frequency treatment of foods: review of recent advances. Journal of Food Engineering, 91, 497–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marra, F., Zell, M., Lyng, J. G., Morgan, D. J., & Cronin, D. A. (2009b). Analysis of heat transfer during ohmic processing of a solid food. Journal of Food Engineering, 91, 56–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McKenna, B. M., Lyng, J., Brunton, N., & Shirsat, N. (2006). Advances in radio frequency and ohmic heating of meats. Journal of Food Engineering, 77, 215–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Midilli, A., & Kucuk, H. (2003). Energy and exergy analyses of solar drying process of pistachio. Energy, 28, 539–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mukhopadhyay, S., Tomasula, P. M., Luchansky, J. B., Porto-Fett, A., & Call, J. E. (2010). Removal of Salmonella enteritidis from commercial unpasteurized liquid egg white using pilot scale cross flow tangential microfiltration. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 142, 309–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mull, T. E. (2001). Practical guide to energy management for facilities engineers and plant managers. New York: ASME Press.Google Scholar
  39. Muller, D. C. A., Marechal, F. M. A., Wolewinski, T., & Roux, P. J. (2007). An energy management method for the food industry. Applied Thermal Engineering, 27, 2677–2686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nguyen, L. T., Choi, W., Lee, S. H., & June, S. (2013). Exploring the heating patterns of multiphase foods in a continuous flow, simultaneous microwave and ohmic combination heater. Journal of Food Engineering, 116, 65–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Okos, M., Rao, N., Drecher, S., Rode, M., & Kozak, J. (1998) Energy usage in the food industry. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Online:
  42. Onsekizoglu, P., Bahceci, K. S., & Acar, M. J. (2010). Clarification and the concentration of apple juice using membrane processes: a comparative quality assessment. Journal of Membrane Science, 352, 160–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ozgener, L., & Ozgener, O. (2006). Exergy analysis of industrial pasta drying process. International Journal of Energy Research, 30, 1323–1335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ozyurt, O., Comakli, O., Yilmaz, M., & Karsli, S. (2004). Heat pump use in milk pasteurization: an energy analysis. International Journal of Energy Research, 28, 833–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ramirez, C. A., Patel, M., & Blok, K. (2006a). How much energy to process one pound of meat? A comparison of energy use and specify energy consumption in the meat industry of four European countries. Energy, 31, 2047–2063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ramirez, C. A., Blok, K., Neelis, M., & Patel, M. (2006b). Adding apples and oranges: the monitoring of energy efficiency in the Dutch food industry. Energy Policy, 34, 1720–1735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sabirzyanov, A. N., Il’in, A. P., Akhunov, A. R., & Gumerov, F. M. (2002). Solubility of water in supercritical carbon dioxide. High Temperature, 40, 203–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Simpson, R., Cortes, C., & Teixeira, A. (2006). Energy consumption in batch thermal processing: model development and validation. Journal of Food Engineering, 73, 217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Singh, R. P., & Heldman, D. R. (2013). Introduction to food engineering (5th ed.). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  50. Smith, R. (2000). State of the art in process integration. Applied Thermal Engineering, 20, 1337–1345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Srimuang, W., & Amatachaya, P. (2012). A review of the applications of heat pipe heat exchangers for heat recovery. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 4303–4315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sun, D. W., & Wang, L. J. (2001). Novel refrigeration cycles, chapter 1. In D. W. Sun (Ed.), Advances in food refrigeration (pp. 1–69). UK: Leatherhead Publishing.Google Scholar
  53. Toepfl, S., Mathys, A., Heinz, V., & Knorr, D. (2006). Review: potential of high hydrostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields for energy efficiency and environmentally friendly food processing. Food Reviews International, 22, 405–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Trivittayasil, V., Tanaka, F., & Uchino, T. (2011). Investigation of deactivation of mold conidia by infrared heating in a model-based approach. Journal of Food Engineering, 104, 565–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. U.S. Census Bureau. (2013). 2011 Annual survey of manufactures. Online:
  56. U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2013). Electric power annual 2012. Online:
  57. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). (2007). Energy trends in selected manufacturing sectors: opportunities and challenges for environmentally preferable energy outcomes. Online:
  58. Walkling-Ribeiro, M., Rodriguez-Gonzalez, O., Jayaram, S., & Griffiths, M. W. (2011). Microbial inactivation and shelf life comparison of ‘cold’ hurdle processing with pulsed electric fields and microfiltration, and conventional thermal pasteurization in skim milk. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 144, 379–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Walker, M. E., Lv, Z., & Masanet, E. (2013). Industrial steam systems and the energy-water nexus. Environmental Science & Technology, 47, 13060–13067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wang, L. J. (2008). Energy efficiency and management in food processing facilities. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wang, L. J., Sun, D. W., Liang, P., Zhuang, L. X., & Tan, Y. K. (2000a). Heat transfer characteristics of the carbon steel spirally fluted tube for high-pressure preheaters. Energy Conversion and Management, 41, 993–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wang, L. J., Sun, D. W., Liang, P., Zhuang, L. X., & Tan, Y. K. (2000b). Experimental studies on heat transfer enhancement of the inside and outside spirally triangle finned tube with small spiral angles for high pressure preheaters. International Journal of Energy Research, 24, 309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yang, J., Bingol, G., Pan, Z., Brandl, M. T., McHugh, T. H., & Wang, H. (2010). Infrared heating for dry-roasting and pasteurization of almonds. Journal of Food Engineering, 101, 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zimparov, V. (2002). Energy conservation through heat transfer enhancement techniques. International Journal of Energy Research, 26, 675–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biological Engineering Program, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental DesignNorth Carolina Agricultural and Technical State UniversityGreensboroUSA

Personalised recommendations