Experimental investigation on heat transfer characteristics in cryogenic chilldown of a helically coiled tube

Abstract

Chilldown of transfer lines is an important phenomenon associated with cryogenic liquid transfer from the storage facility to the location of its intended application. Analysis of heat transfer characteristics during cryogenic chilldown of a helical coil is the focus of this study. In view of the ease in availability and handling compared to other cryogens, Liquid nitrogen is adopted. The cryogen was transmitted through copper helical test sections with 7.94 mm outer diameter, 0.81 mm wall thickness and having helix angles 4°, 6°, 8°, 10°, 12° and 16° with horizontal axes, at three different mass fluxes, that is, 66 kg/m2s, 86 kg/m2s and 102 kg/m2s under terrestrial gravity conditions. Temperature-time relationships were obtained and the results were compared with that of straight channels. The results of the experiment indicated that the chilldown time for coils of different helix angles were different at a given mass flux. Also, for a given helix angle, chilldown time varied inversely with mass flux. Results suggested the prospect of an optimum helix angle that can serve in minimizing the chilldown time, thereby reducing cryogenic liquid consumption. Finding correlations connecting heat transfer parameters in helical coils would enhance the scope of this study.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11

Abbreviations

C :

Specific heat, J (kg K)–1

d :

Diameter, m

L :

Length, m

g :

Acceleration due to gravity, ms–2

h :

Heat transfer coefficient, W(m2. K)–1

h fg :

Latent heat of vaporization, J(kgK)-1

m :

Mass of cryogen, kg

G :

Mass flux, kg (m2s)–1

q” :

Heat flux, Wm–2

r :

Radius, mm

T :

Temperature, K

t :

Time, s

\( \Delta {{T}} \) :

Wall super heat, K

μ:

Absolute viscosity, Pa s

\( \rho \) :

Density, kgm–3

\( \sigma \) :

Surface tension coefficient, Nm–1

θ:

Helix angle of the coil (0)

CHF:

Critical heat flux

LFP:

Leidenfrost point

MHF:

Minimum heat flux

ONB:

Onset of nucleate boiling

v:

Vapor

l:

Liquid

I:

Inner surface of wall

o:

Outer surface of wall

parasitic:

Parasitic heat load

cond:

Conductive heat load

conv:

Convective heat load

rad:

Radiative heat load

a :

Axial length

sat:

Saturation conditions

w:

Wall

leid:

Leidenfrost point

References

  1. 1

    Dresar N V and Siegwarth J 2003 Cryogenic transfer line chilldown. Adv Cryog Eng. 49308–15

  2. 2

    Shaeffer R, Hu H and Chung J N 2013 An experimental study on liquid nitrogen pipe chilldown and heat transfer with pulse flows, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 67:955–966

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Johnson J and Shine S R 2015 Transient cryogenic chill down process in horizontal and inclined pipes. Cryogenics 71:7–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Hartwig J, Darr S and Asencio A 2016 Assessment of existing two phase heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux correlations for cryogenic flow boiling in pipe quenching experiments. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 93:441–463

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Mohammed J, Mohizin A and Roy K 2020 Experimental investigations on transient cryogenic chilldown of a short horizontal copper transfer line. Sādhanā, 45:12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Darr S R, Hu H, Glikin N, Hartwig J W, Majumdar A K, Leclair A C and Chung J N 2016 An experimental study on terrestrial cryogenic tube chilldown II. Effect of flow direction with respect to gravity and new correlation set. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 103:1243–1260

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Klimenko V V, Fyodorov M V and Fomichyov Y A 1989 Channel orientation and geometry influence on heat transfer with two-phase forced flow of nitrogen. Cryogenics 29:31–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Manglik R M, Bergles A E, Dongaonkar A J and Rajendran S 2013 Limitations of compiling the global literature on enhanced heat and mass transfer. J. Enhanc. Heat Transf. 20:83–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Vashisth S, Kumar V and Nigam K D P 2008 A review on the potential applications of curved geometries in process industry. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 47:3291–3337

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Rennie T J and Raghavan V G S 2006 Numerical studies of a double-pipe helical heat exchanger. Appl. Therm. Eng. 26:1266–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Naphon P and Wongwises S 2006 A review of flow and heat transfer characteristics in curved tubes. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 10:463–490

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Owhadi A, Bell K J and Crain B 1968 Forced Convection Boiling Tubes Helically-Coiled. Int. J. Hear Mass Transfr. 11:1779–1793

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Bai B F and Guo L J 1977 Study on convective boiling heat transfer in horizontal helically coiled tubes. Chinese J. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 17:302–308

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Guo L J, Feng Z P, Chen X J and Thomas N H 1996 Experimental investigation of forced convective boiling flow instabilities in horizontal helically coiled tubes. J. Therm. Sci. 5:210–216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Kang H J, Lin C X and Ebadian M A 2000 Condensation of R134a flowing inside helicoidal pipe. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 43:2553–2564

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Fsadni A M and Whitty J P M 2016 A review on the two-phase pressure drop characteristics in helically coiled tubes. Appl. Therm. Eng. 103:616–638

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Goering D J, Humphrey J A C and Greif R 1997 The dual influence of curvature and buoyancy in fully developed tube flows. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 40:2187–2199

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Prabhanjan D G, Raghavan G S V and Rennie T J 2002 Comparison of heat transfer rates between a straight tube heat exchanger and a helically coiled heat exchanger. Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf. 29:185–191

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Mukesh Kumar P C, Kumar J and Suresh S 2013 Experimental investigation on convective heat transfer and friction factor in a helically coiled tube with Al2O3/water nanofluid. J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 27:239–245

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Berger S A, Talbot L and Yao L S 1983 Flow in Curved Pipes. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 15:461–512

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Zhao L, Guo L, Bai B, Hou Y and Zhang X 2003 Convective boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow characteristics inside a small horizontal helically coiled tubing once-through steam generator. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 25:4779–4788

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Jensen M K and Bergles A E 1982 Critical heat flux in helical coils with a circumferential heat flux tilt toward the outside surface. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 25:1383–1395

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Styrikovich M A, Polonsky V S and Reshetov V V 1984 Experimental investigation of the critical heat flux and post-dryout temperature regime of helical coils. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 27:1245–1250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Moffat R J 1988 Describing the uncertainties in experimental results. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 1:3–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Hartwig J, Hu H, Styborski J and Chung J N 2015 Comparison of cryogenic flow boiling in liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen chilldown experiments. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 88:662–673

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Chi J W H 1965 Cooldown Temperatures and Cooldown Time during Mist Flow. Adv. Cryog. Eng. 10:330–340

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Das S K and Mandal S N 2003 Gas-liquid flow through coils. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 20 4:624–630

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Murai Y, Yoshikawa S, Toda S, Ishikawa M and Yamamoto F 2006 Structure of air – water two-phase flow in helically coiled tubes. Nucl. Eng. Des. 236:94–106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Kong L, Han J, Chen C and Xing K 2015 Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of r134a in horizontal helically coiled tubes. J. Enhanc. Heat Transf. 22:281–301

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Yuan K, Ji Y and Chung J N 2007 Cryogenic chilldown process under low flow rates. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 50:4011–4022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    Hu H, Chung J N and Amber S H 2012 An experimental study on flow patterns and heat transfer characteristics during cryogenic chilldown in a vertical pipe. Cryogenics 52:268–277

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Shukla A K, Sridharan A and Atrey M D 2017 Investigation of transient chill down phenomena in tubes using liquid nitrogen. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 278

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    Darr S R, Hu H, Glikin N, Hartwig J W, Majumdar A K, Leclair A C and Chung J N 2016 An experimental study on terrestrial cryogenic transfer line chilldown I. Effect of mass flux, equilibrium quality, and inlet subcooling. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 103:1225–1242

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Chung J N and Yuan K 2015 Recent progress on experimental research of cryogenic transport line chilldown process. Front. Heat Mass Transf. 6:1

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    Jin L, Park C, Cho H, Lee C and Jeong S 2016 Experimental investigation on chill-down process of cryogenic flow line. Cryogenics. 79:96–105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    Burggraf O R 1964 An Exact Solution of the Inverse Problem in Heat Conduction Theory and Applications. J. Heat Transfer. 86(3):373–380

  37. 37

    Iloeje O C, Plummer D N, RohsenowW M and Griffith P 1975 An investigation of the collapse and surface rewet in film boiling in forced vertical flow. Trans. ASME. Ser. C, J. Heat Transf. 2:166–172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    Hand Book 1983 Heat Exchanger Design. Heat Exch. Des. Guid.

  39. 39

    Berenson P J 1961 Film-Boiling Heat Transfer from a horizontal Surface. J Heat Transf. ASME. 351–358

  40. 40

    Zuber N 1958 On the stability of boiling heat transfer. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. 80:711–720

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41

    Kutateladze S 1948 On the transition to film boiling under natural convection. Kotloturbostroenie 3:152–158

  42. 42

    Kong L, Han J, Chen C, Xing K and Lei G 2017 An experimental study on subcooled flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of R134a in vertical helically coiled tubes. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 82:231–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgement

Authors would like to thank the Space Technology Laboratory in TKM College for Engineering for experimental set-up. They would also like to express gratitude for Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme Phase-II (TEQIP-II) promoted by National Project Implementation Unit, MHRD, Government of India for their support.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jesna Mohammed.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mohammed, J., Bindu, S.S., Mohizin, A. et al. Experimental investigation on heat transfer characteristics in cryogenic chilldown of a helically coiled tube. Sādhanā 46, 2 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12046-020-01524-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cryogenic chilldown
  • CHF
  • Helical coil
  • Helix angle
  • Liquid nitrogen
  • Straight tube