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Journal of Genetics

, Volume 97, Issue 5, pp 1433–1444 | Cite as

Selection and validation of reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR gene expression in wheat (Triticum durum L.) under drought and salt stresses

  • Jamshidi Goharrizi KiarashEmail author
  • Henry Dayton Wilde
  • Farzane Amirmahani
  • Mohammad Mehdi Moemeni
  • Maryam Zaboli
  • Maryam Nazari
  • Sayyed Saeed Moosavi
  • Mina Jamalvandi
Research Article
  • 79 Downloads

Abstract

Eight candidate housekeeping genes were examined as internal controls for normalizing expression analysis of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) under drought and salinity stress conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to analyse gene expression of multiple stress levels, plant ages (24 and 50 days old), and plant tissues (leaf and root). The algorithms BestKeeper, NormFinder, GeNorm, the delta Ct method and the RefFinder were applied to determine the stability of candidate genes. Under drought stress, the most stable reference genes were glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate, ubiquitin and \(\beta \)-tubulin2, whereas under salinity stress conditions, eukaryotic elongation factor 1-\(\alpha \), glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate and actin were identified as the most stable reference genes. Validation with stress-responsive genes NAC29 and NAC6 demonstrated that the expression level of target genes could be determined reliably with combinations of up to three of the reference genes. This is the first report on reference genes appropriate for quantification of target gene expression in T. durum under drought and salt stresses. Results of this investigation may be applicable to other Triticum species.

Keywords

drought stress housekeeping genes quantitative real-time PCR salt stress transcription factors Triticum durum 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Dr Ali Hadipour, Dr Arman Salehi and Dr Negar Salehi for editing this paper and especially Mrs Sheryl Nikpoor and Navid Jamshidi for their valuable comments. Also, we are thankful to anonymous referees who helped us to improve our paper.

Supplementary material

12041_2018_1042_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (docx 2327 KB)

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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jamshidi Goharrizi Kiarash
    • 1
    Email author
  • Henry Dayton Wilde
    • 2
  • Farzane Amirmahani
    • 3
  • Mohammad Mehdi Moemeni
    • 1
  • Maryam Zaboli
    • 4
  • Maryam Nazari
    • 5
  • Sayyed Saeed Moosavi
    • 5
  • Mina Jamalvandi
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Plant Breeding, Yazd BranchIslamic Azad UniversityYazdIran
  2. 2.Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics, and GenomicsUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  3. 3.Faculty of Sciences, Genetic Division, Department of BiologyUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran
  4. 4.Faculty of Science, Department of ChemistryUniversity of BirjandBirjandIran
  5. 5.Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran
  6. 6.Department of Genetic, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran

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