Phylogenetic analysis and evolution of morphological characters in the genus Jasminum L. (Oleaceae) in India
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Jasminum L. (Oleaceae) consists of \(\sim 200\) species that are distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. In India, this genus is represented by ca 47 species of which 16 are endemic. Based on the nuclear (internal-transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nrDNA and chloroplast markers (matK, trnL-F and trnH-psbA), phylogenetic relationships in 22 species including one variety of Jasminum in India have been assessed. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses from individual markers, as well as from combined dataset, reveal that the group is monophyletic if Menodora spp. are excluded from the analyses. Our analyses recovered three strongly supported clades. Ancestral character state reconstruction of taxonomically useful characters (leaf forms, leaf arrangement and flower colour) which were used to demarcate sections within the genus reveals homoplasy. Our study suggests that after split from the last common ancestor, there have been at least four reversals to unifoliolate condition. Pinnately compound leaf form evolved at least twice and trifoliolate condition evolved one time only. Alternate leaf form evolved at least twice, once in clade 1 and once in clade 3 and all the time from ancestors having opposite leaf forms. Flower colour evolution clearly depicts that clade 1 is yellow-flowered and clades 2 and 3 have admixture of white and yellow-flowered Jasminum species. Our study suggests that yellow-flowered condition evolved from the white-flowered ancestor. The present study is first to estimate the evolutionary history of Indian Jasmines.
KeywordsJasminum phylogeny evolutionary relationships character reconstruction leaf and flower colour evolution
The authors are thankful to UGC, New Delhi for financial support (#32-409/2006 (SR)), and to Kerala Forest Department for permission to collect Jasminum spp. from forest areas in Kerala. NJ, RY and DV greatly acknowledge the help rendered by the Principals of respective Sree Narayana Colleges at Chempazhanthy and Kollam for providing research facilities. The authors thank Prof. R. Geeta, Department of Botany, University of Delhi for going through the manuscript and providing valuable suggestions.
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