Journal of Genetics

, Volume 97, Issue 5, pp 1225–1239 | Cite as

Phylogenetic analysis and evolution of morphological characters in the genus Jasminum L. (Oleaceae) in India

  • J. Nirmala Jeyarani
  • Regy Yohannan
  • Devipriya Vijayavalli
  • Mayank D. Dwivedi
  • Arun K. PandeyEmail author
Research Article


Jasminum L. (Oleaceae) consists of \(\sim 200\) species that are distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. In India, this genus is represented by ca 47 species of which 16 are endemic. Based on the nuclear (internal-transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nrDNA and chloroplast markers (matK, trnL-F and trnH-psbA), phylogenetic relationships in 22 species including one variety of Jasminum in India have been assessed. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses from individual markers, as well as from combined dataset, reveal that the group is monophyletic if Menodora spp. are excluded from the analyses. Our analyses recovered three strongly supported clades. Ancestral character state reconstruction of taxonomically useful characters (leaf forms, leaf arrangement and flower colour) which were used to demarcate sections within the genus reveals homoplasy. Our study suggests that after split from the last common ancestor, there have been at least four reversals to unifoliolate condition. Pinnately compound leaf form evolved at least twice and trifoliolate condition evolved one time only. Alternate leaf form evolved at least twice, once in clade 1 and once in clade 3 and all the time from ancestors having opposite leaf forms. Flower colour evolution clearly depicts that clade 1 is yellow-flowered and clades 2 and 3 have admixture of white and yellow-flowered Jasminum species. Our study suggests that yellow-flowered condition evolved from the white-flowered ancestor. The present study is first to estimate the evolutionary history of Indian Jasmines.


Jasminum phylogeny evolutionary relationships character reconstruction leaf and flower colour evolution 



The authors are thankful to UGC, New Delhi for financial support (#32-409/2006 (SR)), and to Kerala Forest Department for permission to collect Jasminum spp. from forest areas in Kerala. NJ, RY and DV greatly acknowledge the help rendered by the Principals of respective Sree Narayana Colleges at Chempazhanthy and Kollam for providing research facilities. The authors thank Prof. R. Geeta, Department of Botany, University of Delhi for going through the manuscript and providing valuable suggestions.

Supplementary material

12041_2018_1019_MOESM1_ESM.docx (825 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (docx 824 KB)


  1. Banfi E. 2014 Chrysojasminum, a new genus for Jasminum sect. Alternifolia (Oleaceae, Jasmineae). Nat. Hist. Sci. 1, 3–6.Google Scholar
  2. De Candolle A. P. 1844 Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis 8. Treuttel & Wfirtz, Paris.Google Scholar
  3. Drummond A. J., Ashton B., Buxton S., Cheung M., Cooper A., Heled J., et al. 2010 Geneious v. 5.1, available at
  4. Green P. S. 1969 Studies in the genus Jasminum L. IV. These so called new world species. Kew Bull. 23, 273–275.Google Scholar
  5. Green P. S. 1997 A Revision of the Pinnate-leaved species of Jasminum. Studies in the genus Jasminum (Oleaceae): XV. Kew Bull. 52, 933–947.Google Scholar
  6. Green P. S. 2001 Studies in the genus Jasminum, XVII: sections Trifoliolata and Primulina. Kew Bull. 56, 903–915.Google Scholar
  7. Green P. S. 2003 A synopsis to the Oleaceae in the Indian subcontinent. Kew Bull. 98, 257–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Green P. S. 2004 Oleaceae. In Flowering plants, Dicotyledons: Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae) (ed. J. W. Kadereit), vol. 7, pp. 296–306. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Green P. S. and Miller D. 2009 The genus Jasminum in cultivation. Kew Pub., Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
  10. Hanelt P. 2001 Mansfeld’s encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals), vol. 3, pp. 1710–1712. Springer Verlag, Germany.Google Scholar
  11. Huelsenbeck J. P. and Crandall K. A. 1997 Phylogeny estimation and hypothesis testing using maximum likelihood. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 28, 437–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim J. K. and Jansen R. K. 1998 Paraphyly of Jasminoideae and monophyly of Oleoideae in Oleaceae. Am. J. Bot. 85, 139.Google Scholar
  13. Kim S. C., Chunghee L. and Mejías J. A. 2007 Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast DNA matK gene and ITS of nrDNA sequences reveals polyphyly of the genus Sonchus and new relationships among the subtribe Sonchinae (Asteraceae: Cichorieae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 44, 578–597.Google Scholar
  14. Lanfear R., Frandsen P. B., Wright A. M., Senfeld T. and Calcott B. 2016 PartitionFinder 2: new methods for selecting partitioned models of evolution for molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses. Mol. Biol. Evol. 34, 772–773.Google Scholar
  15. Miller M. A., Pfeiffer W. and Schwartz T. 2010 Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), New Orleans, LA. pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  16. Murthy A. S. and Khanna K. R. 1971 A study of triploid Jasminum grandiflorum L. Curr. Sci. 40, 555–556.Google Scholar
  17. Raizada U. and Nangia A. 1989 Cyclic nocturnal opening and abscission of Nyctanthes flowers with a note on visiting Thrips species. Curr. Sci. 58, 93–96.Google Scholar
  18. Rambaut A., Suchrad M. A., Xie D. and Drummond A. J. 2014. Tracer v1.6;
  19. Rao Y. R. and Rout P. K. 2003 Geographical location and harvest time dependent variation in the composition of essential oils of Jasminum sambac. (L.) Aiton. J. Essent. Oil Res. 15, 389–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rohwer J. G. 1994 Seed characters in Jasminum (Oleaceae): unexpected support for De Candolle’s sections. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 116, 299–319.Google Scholar
  21. Rohwer J. G. 1995 Seed characters in Jasminum (Oleaceae), II. Evidence from additional species. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 117, 299–315.Google Scholar
  22. Srivastava S. K. 2002 Threatened taxa of Jasminum L. in India. Phytotaxonomy 2, 94–99.Google Scholar
  23. Stamatakis A. 2006 RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22, 2688–2690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stamatakis A., Hoover P. and Rougemont J. 2008 A rapid bootsrap algorithm for the RAxML Web Servers. Syst. Biol. 75, 758–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Taberlet P., Gielley L., Pautou G. and Bouvet J. 1991 Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Plant Mol. Biol. 17, 1105–1109. Scholar
  26. Taylor H. 1945 Chemotaxonomy and phylogeny of the Oleaceae. Brittonia 5, 337–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Thakur P. and Bhatnagar A. K. 2013 Pollination constraints in flowering plants – human actions undoing over hundred million year of co-evolution and posing an unprecedented threat to biodiversity. Int. J. Reprod. Biomed. 5, 29–74.Google Scholar
  28. Wallander E. and Albert V. A. 2000 Phylogeny and classification of Oleaceae based on rps-16 and trnL-F sequence data. Am. J. Bot. 87, 1827–1841.Google Scholar
  29. White T. J., Bruns T., Lee S. and Taylor J. 1990 Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In PCR Protocols: a guide to methods and applications (ed. M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky and T. J. White), pp. 315–322. Academic Press, New York, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Nirmala Jeyarani
    • 1
  • Regy Yohannan
    • 2
  • Devipriya Vijayavalli
    • 3
  • Mayank D. Dwivedi
    • 4
  • Arun K. Pandey
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BotanyFatima Mata National College (Autonomous)KollamIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanySree Narayana CollegeKollamIndia
  3. 3.Department of BotanySree Narayana CollegeThiruvananthapuramIndia
  4. 4.Department of BotanyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations