P wave tomographic imaging of the crust down to a depth of 90 km is performed beneath the region encompassing Sumatra, Java, Malacca Strait, peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Inversion is performed with 99,741 first-arrival p waves from 16,196 local and regional earthquakes occurred around the Sumatra Subduction Zone (SSZ) between 1964 and 2018. Tomographic results show low-velocity (low-V) anomalies that reflect both accretion and possibly, asthenospheric upwelling associated with subduction of the Australian Plate beneath Eurasia around the SSZ. The prominent low-V anomaly is thickest around the Conrad, extending beneath Straits of Malacca and parts of peninsular Malaysia, but disappears around the Moho in the region. Below the Moho, the subducting slab, represented by a high-velocity (high-V) anomaly, trends in the orientation of Sumatra. At these depths, the eastern shorelines of Sumatra, most parts of Malacca Strait and the west coast of peninsular Malaysia show varying degrees of positive velocity anomalies. We consider that asthenospheric upwelling around the SSZ may provide heat source for the 40 or more hot springs distributed north–south in peninsular Malaysia. Different east–west and north–south cross-sections reveal the subsurface anomalies at various parts of the region. The predominant low-V anomaly is less than 35 km in depth, but other low-V anomalies are deeper.
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The authors thank Kim Woohan for the use of his two-point ray tracing codes which was modified in a subroutine within our algorithm. The original codes by Zhao Dapeng was modified and used in the model parameterization and traveltime derivative stages of the inversion process. The authors acknowledge the Bulletin of International Seismological Center (ISC) from where most part of the arrival time data used in this study is obtained. Also, the data services of Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) were used for access waveforms and earthquake catalog which form part of the data used in this study.
Communicated by Anand Joshi
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Osagie, A.U., Ahmad Abir, I. Seismic tomographic imaging of P wave velocity perturbation beneath Sumatra, Java, Malacca Strait, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. J Earth Syst Sci 130, 23 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-020-01530-w
- Seismic tomography
- p waves
- Sumatra Subduction Zone