Monsoonal rainfall induced shallow earthquake Swarm in the Amravati district of the central India

Abstract

Sadrabadi and Zilphi villages of Dharni Taluka in Amravati district, Maharashtra, experienced small magnitude earthquakes between September 1, 2018 and December 9, 2018. We deployed a four station temporary network of three component broadband seismographs to understand and characterize the earthquake sequence. We find that the short lived (~2 months) micro-earthquake (M ≤ 2.4) swarm, accompanying rumbling sound, was highly clustered (3×3 km2) and occurred at extremely shallow depth (<0.4 km). Analysis of the data reveal that the earthquake swarm might have been induced by the percolation of monsoonal rainwaters (reaching ~100 mm/day) through the cracked volume of soil/rock, associated with the fault system of the Narmada Son failed rift region. Besides revealing the science of earthquake swarm and characterizing it, the monitoring of earthquake swarm and its analysis contributed significantly in reducing the public panic.

Highlights

  • We report a case of monsoonal rainfall induced earthquakes from the Narmada Son failed rift region in Amravati district.

  • The earthquake sequence is referred here as an earthquake swarm.

  • The near surface shallow focused micro earthquakes (M≤2.4) occurred in a small region (3×3 km2) immediately after the monsoon of 2018.

  • Monitoring of such sequence is important to declare whether the sequence is a swarm activity that may not lead to the occurrence of a strong earthquake in the region.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1
Figure 2

References

  1. Chopra S, Madhusudhan Rao K, Sairam B, Santosh Kumar, Gupta A K, Hardik Patel, Gadhavi M S and Rastogi B K 2008 Earthquake swarm activities after rains in peninsular India and a case study from Jamnagar; J. Geol. Soc. India 72 245–252.

    Google Scholar 

  2. England P and J Jackson 2011 Uncharted seismic risk; Nature Geosci. 4 348–349.

  3. Gahalaut V K, Rao V K and Tewari H C 2004 On the mechanism and source parameters of the deep crustal Jabalpur earthquake of May 21, 1997: Constraints from aftershocks and change in static stress; Geophys. J. Int. 156 345–351.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Gahalaut V K, Kalpna Gahalaut, Catherine J K, Sreejith K M, Ritesh Agrawal, Rajeev Kumar Yadav, Ch Mohanalakshmi, Naidu M S and Rajeshwar Rao V 2018 Geodetic constraints on tectonic and anthropogenic deformation and seismogenesis of Koyna–Warna Region, India; Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 108, https://doi.org/10.1785/0120170373.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Gangopadhyay A and Talwani P 2003 Symptomatic features of intraplate earthquakes; Seismol. Res. Lett. 74(6) 863–883.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. GSI report 1995 Geoscientific studies of the Son–Narmada–Tapti lineament zone; Geol. Surv. India, Spec. Publ. 10 371.

  7. Gupta H K 2002 A review of recent studies of triggered earthquakes by artificial water reservoirs with special emphasis on earthquakes in Koyna, India; Earth Sci. Rev. 58 279–310.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Hainzl S, Kraft T, Wassermann J, Igel H and Schmedes E 2006 Evidence for rainfall-triggered earthquake activity; Geophys. Res. Lett. 33 L19303, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027642.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Hainzl S, Aggarwal S K, Khan P K and Rastogi B K 2015 Monsoon-induced earthquake activity in Talala, Gujarat India; Geophys. J. Int. 200 627–637.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Huang L Sh, McRaney J, Teng T L and Prebish M 1979 A preliminary study on the relationship between precipitation and large earthquakes in southern California; Pure Appl. Geophys. 117 1286–1300.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Kayal J R, De R, Ram S, Srirama B V and Gaonkar S G 2002a Aftershocks of the January 26, 2001 Bhuj earthquake and its seismotectonic implications; J. Geol. Soc. India 59 395–417.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Kayal J R, Zhoa D, Mishra O P, De R and Singh O P 2002b The 2001 Bhuj earthquake: Tomographic evidence for fluids at the hypercenter and its implications for rupture nucleation, Geophys. Res. Lett., https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015177.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Lei J, Xie F, Mishra O P, Zhang G, Lu Y and Li Y 2012 The 2011 Yingjiang, China, earthquake (M 5.8): A volcano-related fluid-driven earthquake? Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 102 417–425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Mahesh P, Gahalaut V K, Catherine J K, Ambikapathy A, Bhaskar Kundu, Amit Bansal, Chadha R K and Narsaiah M 2012 Localized crustal deformation in the Godavari failed rift, India; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 333–334 46–51, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2012.04.008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Mishra O P 2013 Crustal heterogeneity in bulk velocity beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake source zone and its implications; Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 103 3235–3247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Mishra O P and Zhao D 2003 Crack density, saturation rate and porosity at the 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake hypocenter: A fluid-driven earthquake? Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 212 393–405.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Mogi K 1963 Some discussion on aftershocks, foreshocks and earthquake swarms – the fracture of semi-infinite body caused by an inner stress origin and its relation to the earthquake phenomena; Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. 41 615–658.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Muco B 1999 Statistical investigation on possible seasonality of seismic activity and rainfall-induced earthquakes in Balkan area; Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 114 119–127.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Solomon Raju P, Srinivasan A, Raghavan R V and Kousalya M 2000 Micro-tremor activity in Jubilee Hills area of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; J. Geol. Soc. India 55 443–445.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Saar O and Manga M 2003 Seismicity induces by seasonal groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 214 605–618.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Satheesh A, Mahesh P, Singh A P, Santosh Kumar, Sumer Chopra and Ravi Kumar M 2019 Are earthquake swarms in South Gujarat, northwestern Deccan Volcanic Province of India monsoon induced?; Environ. Earth Sci. 78(381) 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-019-8382-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Shashidhar D, Rao N P and Gupta H K 2011 Waveform inversion of local earthquakes using broad band data of Koyna–Warna region, western India; Geophys. J. Int. 185 292–304.

  23. Sibson R 1992 Implications of fault-valve behavior for rupture nucleation and recurrence; Tectonophysics 211 283–293.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Šílený J and Milev A 2008 Source mechanism of mining induced seismic events – resolution of double couple and nondouble couple models; Tectonophysics 456 3–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Singh A P and Mishra O P 2015 Seismological evidence for monsoon induced micro to moderate earthquake sequence; Tectonophysics 661 38–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Talwani P, Chen L and Gahalaut K 2007 Seismogenic permeability, ks; J. Geophys. Res. 112 B07309, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JB004665.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Authors are grateful to the Secretary, MoES for encouragement to take up this study of societal impact. Authors are thankful to DG, Geological Survey of India, and R S Garkhal, ADG, GSI, CHQ for allowing the joint analysis by providing the recorded data by stations established by GSI. We are also thankful to the district administration Amravati, Govt. of Maharashtra for their logistic support and assistance in the field. We thank an anonymous reviewer for very constructive comments. We appreciate encouraging and prompt handling of the manuscript by the editor, Dr. N V Chalapathi Rao. This is joint publication of NCS, GSI and NGRI. CSIR-NGRI publication number NGRI/Lib/2019/Pub-113.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Monika Wadhawan, Naresh Rana, Vineet Gahalaut, O P Mishra, Akshay Kumar Joshi, A V Kulkarni and Mahendra Singh analysed the earthquake data. A K Das analysed the rainfall data. All authors contributed equally in the manuscript writing.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vineet Gahalaut.

Additional information

Communicated by N V Chalapathi Rao

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wadhawan, M., Rana, N., Gahalaut, V. et al. Monsoonal rainfall induced shallow earthquake Swarm in the Amravati district of the central India. J Earth Syst Sci 130, 29 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-020-01511-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Earthquake swarm
  • perceptible earthquake sequence
  • monsoon-induced earthquakes
  • failed rift region