Characteristics of surface ozone in Agra, a sub-urban site in Indo-Gangetic Plain

  • Nidhi Verma
  • Aparna Satsangi
  • Anita Lakhani
  • K Maharaj Kumari


In the present study, measurements of surface ozone (\(\hbox {O}_{3}\)) and its precursors (NO and \(\hbox {NO}_{2}\)) were carried out at a sub-urban site of Agra (\(27{^{\circ }}10'\hbox {N}\), \(78{^{\circ }}05'\hbox {E}\)), India during May 2012–May 2013. During the study period, average concentrations of \(\hbox {O}_{3}\), NO, and \(\hbox {NO}_{2}\) were \(39.6 \pm 25.3\), \(0.8 \pm 0.8\) and \(9.1 \pm 6.6 \, \hbox {ppb}\), respectively. \(\hbox {O}_{3}\) showed distinct seasonal variation in peak value of diurnal variation: summer \({>}\) post-monsoon \({>}\) winter \({>}\) monsoon. However, \(\hbox {NO}_{2}\) showed highest levels in winter and lowest in monsoon. The average positive rate of change of \(\hbox {O}_{3}\) (08:00–11:00 hr) was highest in April (16.3 ppb/hr) and lowest in August (1.1 ppb/hr), while average negative rate of change of \(\hbox {O}_{3}\) (17:00–19:00 hr) was highest in December (–13.2 ppb/hr) and lowest in July (–1.1 ppb/hr). An attempt was made to identify the \(\hbox {VOC--NO}_{\mathrm{x}}\) sensitivity of the site using \(\hbox {O}_{3}/\hbox {HNO}_{3}\) ratio as photochemical indicator. Most of the days this ratio was above the threshold value (12–16), which suggests \(\hbox {NO}_{\mathrm{x}}\) sensitivity of the site. The episodic event of ozone was characterized through meteorological parameters and precursors concentration. Fine particles (\(\hbox {PM}_{2.5}\)) cause loss of ozone through heterogeneous reactions on their surface and reduction in solar radiation. In the study, statistical analyses were used to estimate the amount of ozone loss.


Surface ozone \(\hbox {O}_{3}/\hbox {HNO}_{3}\) ratio long-range transport \(\hbox {PM}_{2.5}\) 



The authors are thankful to the Director, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra and the Head, Department of Chemistry for necessary help. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support for this work, which is provided by ISRO GBP under AT-CTM project. One of the authors, Nidhi Verma is grateful to the above project for providing SRF.


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nidhi Verma
    • 1
  • Aparna Satsangi
    • 1
  • Anita Lakhani
    • 1
  • K Maharaj Kumari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryDayalbagh Educational InstituteDayalbagh, AgraIndia

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