Histone H2A isoforms: Potential implications in epigenome plasticity and diseases in eukaryotes

Abstract

Epigenetic mechanisms including the post-translational modifications of histones, incorporation of histone variants and DNA methylation have been suggested to play an important role in genome plasticity by allowing the cellular environment to define gene expression and the phenotype of an organism. Studies over the past decade have elucidated how these epigenetic mechanisms are significant in orchestrating various biological processes and contribute to different pathophysiological states. However, the role of histone isoforms and their impact on different phenotypes and physiological processes associated with diseases are not fully clear. This review is focussed on the recent advances in our understanding of the complexity of eukaryotic H2A isoforms and their roles in defining nucleosome organization. We elaborate on their potential roles in genomic complexity and regulation of gene expression, and thereby on their overall contribution towards cellular phenotype and development of diseases.

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Abbreviations

MDD:

Major depressive disorder

ALL:

Acute lymphocytic leukemia

NEC:

Necrotizing enterocolitis

HCC:

Hepatocellular carcinoma

IR:

Ionizing radiation

CRC:

Colorectal cancer

ESCC:

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

CML:

Chronic myeloid leukemia

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Acknowledgements

SS, TV, and MR are thankful to ACTREC for providing SRF fellowship.

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Correspondence to Sanjay Gupta.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection: Chromatin Biology and Epigenetics.

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Cite this article

Shah, S., Verma, T., Rashid, M. et al. Histone H2A isoforms: Potential implications in epigenome plasticity and diseases in eukaryotes. J Biosci 45, 4 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12038-019-9985-0

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Keywords

  • Cancer
  • chromatin organization
  • histone isoforms
  • pathophysiology