Characteristics of SEPs during solar cycles 21–24

Abstract

The study of the solar energetic particle events (SEPs) and their association with solar flares and other activities are very crucial to understand the space weather. Keeping this in view, here we present the study of SEPs (intensity \(\ge 10\) pfu) during the solar cycles 21–24 (1976–2017) in \(> 10\) MeV energy channels associated with solar flares. For our analysis, we have used the data from different instruments onboard SOHO satellite. We have examined the flare size, source location, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) characteristics of associated SEPs. About 31% and 69% of the SEPs were originated from the eastern and western solar hemisphere, respectively. The average CME speed and width were \(1238\hbox { km s}^{-1}\) and \(253^{\circ }\), respectively. About 58% SEPs were associated with halo CMEs and 42% of SEPs associated with CMEs width varying from \(10^{\circ }\) to \(250^{\circ }\), respectively.

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Acknowledgements

We thank the reviewers for their constructive and important suggestions, which improve the paper considerably. We acknowledge the open data policy of NGDC, SOHO and SDO. R. C. acknowledges the support from SERB-DST Project No. SERB/F/7455/2017-17.

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Correspondence to Seema Pande.

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Kumar, R., Chandra, R., Pande, B. et al. Characteristics of SEPs during solar cycles 21–24. J Astrophys Astron 41, 7 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12036-020-9624-z

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Keywords

  • Solar flares
  • solar energetic particle events
  • coronal mass ejections