Improved Reperfusion and Vasculoprotection by the Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase Inhibitor PJ34 After Stroke and Thrombolysis in Mice

  • Mohamad El Amki
  • Dominique Lerouet
  • Marie Garraud
  • Fei Teng
  • Virginie Beray-Berthat
  • Bérard Coqueran
  • Benoît Barsacq
  • Charlotte Abbou
  • Bruno Palmier
  • Catherine Marchand-Leroux
  • Isabelle Margaill


Benefits from thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after ischemic stroke remain limited due to a narrow therapeutic window, low reperfusion rates, and increased risk of hemorrhagic transformations (HT). Experimental data showed that rt-PA enhances the post-ischemic activation of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) which in turn contributes to blood-brain barrier injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether PJ34, a potent PARP inhibitor, improves poor reperfusion induced by delayed rt-PA administration, exerts vasculoprotective effects, and finally increases the therapeutic window of rt-PA. Stroke was induced by thrombin injection (0.75 UI in 1 μl) in the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) of male Swiss mice. Administration of rt-PA (0.9 mg kg−1) or saline was delayed for 4 h after ischemia onset. Saline or PJ34 (3 mg kg−1) was given intraperitoneally twice, just after thrombin injection and 3 h later, or once, 3 h after ischemia onset. Reperfusion was evaluated by laser Doppler, vascular inflammation by immunohistochemistry of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression, and vasospasm by morphometric measurement of the MCA. Edema, cortical lesion, and sensorimotor deficit were evaluated. Treatment with PJ34 improved rt-PA-induced reperfusion and promoted vascular protection including reduction in vascular inflammation (decrease in VCAM-1 expression), HT, and MCA vasospasm. Additionally, the combined treatment significantly reduced brain edema, cortical lesion, and sensorimotor deficit. In conclusion, the combination of the PARP inhibitor PJ34 with rt-PA after cerebral ischemia may be of particular interest in order to improve thrombolysis with an extended therapeutic window.


Stroke Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Reperfusion Vasculoprotection 



Blood-brain barrier


Cerebral blood flow


3,3′-Diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride


Middle cerebral artery




N-(6-Oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-(N,N-dimethylamino)acetamide hydrochloride


Region of interest


Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator


Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1


Authors’ Contributions

DL, MEA, and IM conceived and designed the experiments. MEA, MG, BB, and CA performed the experiments. MEA, DL, BP, and BC analyzed the data. MEA, DL, VBB, CML, and IM wrote the manuscript.

Funding Information

M. El-Amki and. M. Garraud are recipients of a Ph.D. grant from the Université Paris Descartes, Université Sorbonne Paris Cité.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All experiments were performed on male Swiss albino mice (25–32 g, Janvier, Le Genest-St-Isle, France) in compliance with the European Community Council Directive of September 22, 2010 (2010/63/UE), and the French regulations regarding the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes (D2013-118), with the ethical approval of the Paris Descartes University Animal Ethics Committee (registered number P2.CM.152.10).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamad El Amki
    • 1
  • Dominique Lerouet
    • 1
  • Marie Garraud
    • 1
  • Fei Teng
    • 1
  • Virginie Beray-Berthat
    • 1
  • Bérard Coqueran
    • 1
  • Benoît Barsacq
    • 1
  • Charlotte Abbou
    • 1
  • Bruno Palmier
    • 1
  • Catherine Marchand-Leroux
    • 1
  • Isabelle Margaill
    • 1
  1. 1.EA4475 - “Pharmacologie de la Circulation Cérébrale”, Faculté de Pharmacie de Paris, Université Paris DescartesUniversité Sorbonne Paris CitéParisFrance

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