Molecular Biotechnology

, Volume 60, Issue 6, pp 435–453 | Cite as

Diversity of Immunoglobulin (Ig) Isotypes and the Role of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) in Fish

  • Bhakti Patel
  • Rajanya Banerjee
  • Mrinal Samanta
  • Surajit DasEmail author


The disparate diversity in immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoire has been a subject of fascination since the emergence of prototypic adaptive immune system in vertebrates. The carboxy terminus region of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) has been well established in tetrapod lineage and is crucial for its function in class switch recombination (CSR) event of Ig diversification. The absence of CSR in the paraphyletic group of fish is probably due to changes in catalytic domain of AID and lack of cis-elements in IgH locus. Therefore, understanding the arrangement of Ig genes in IgH locus and functional facets of fish AID opens up new realms of unravelling the alternative mechanisms of isotype switching and antibody diversity. Further, the teleost AID has been recently reported to have potential of catalyzing CSR in mammalian B cells by complementing AID deficiency in them. In that context, the present review focuses on the recent advances regarding the generation of diversity in Ig repertoire in the absence of AID-regulated class switching in teleosts and the possible role of T cell-independent pathway involving B cell activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand in activation of CSR machinery.


Activation-induced deaminase (AID) B cell activating factor (BAFF) Isotype switching Immunoglobulins Teleosts 



Variable lymphocyte receptors




Somatic hypermutation


Class-switch recombination


Gene conversion


Activation-induced cytidine deaminase


Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytical component


B cell activating factor


A proliferation-inducing ligand


Toll-like receptors


Tumour necrosis factor


Nuclear factor-κB


Major histocompatibility complex


Mouse double minute 2 homolog





Authors wish to thank the National Agricultural Science Fund (NASF/BS-4003) of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Government of India, for providing the research grant.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bhakti Patel
    • 1
  • Rajanya Banerjee
    • 1
  • Mrinal Samanta
    • 2
  • Surajit Das
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Ecology (LEnME), Department of Life ScienceNational Institute of TechnologyRourkelaIndia
  2. 2.Immunology Laboratory, Fish Health Management DivisionICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater AquacultureKausalyaganga, BhubaneswarIndia

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