The Methods and Mechanisms to Differentiate Endothelial-Like Cells and Smooth Muscle Cells from Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Vascularization in Vaginal Reconstruction
Endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are important aspects of vascularization in vaginal reconstruction. Research has confirmed that mesenchymal stem cells could differentiate into endothelial-like cells and SMCs. But the methods were more complicated and the mechanism was unknown. In the current study, we induced the bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to differentiate into endothelial-like cells and SMCs in vitro by differentiation medium and investigated the effect of Wnt/β-catenin signaling on the differentiation process of BMSCs. Results showed that the hypoxic environment combined with VEGF and bFGF could induce increased expression of endothelial-like cells markers VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and vWF. The SMCs derived from BMSCs induced by TGF-β1 and PDGF-AB significantly expressed SMC markers SMMHC11 and α-SMA. The data also showed that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling could promote the differentiation of BMSCs into endothelial-like cells and SMCs. Thus, we established endothelial-like cells and SMCs in vitro by more simple methods, presented the important role of hypoxic environment on the differentiation of BMSCs into endothelial-like cells, and confirmed that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has a positive impact on the differentiation of BMSCs into endothelial-like cells and SMCs. This is important for vascular reconstruction.
KeywordsCell differentiation Endothelial-like cells Hypoxic environment Mesenchymal stem cell Smooth muscle cells
We thank Dr. Zhang and Dr. Xu of the University of Hebei Pharmacology Laboratory of Shijiazhuang, China, for their help with our research. This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81671407).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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