Association Study of Opioid Receptor Delta-Type 1 (OPRD1) Gene Variants with Nicotine Dependence in an Iranian Population


Twins studies indicate that many individual factors are associated with genetic polymorphisms in tobacco use, dependence vulnerability, and the ability to quit smoking. Opioid receptor delta-type 1 (OPRD1) is one of the most important genes in the opioid pathway. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the association of variants located in the intron 1 of the OPRD1 gene, including rs2236857, rs2236855, and rs760589, with susceptibility to nicotine dependence among northern Iranians. DNA of 426 individuals, including 224 smokers and 202 healthy people, were extracted with the salting-out standard technique, qualified with Agarose gel, then quantified with Nanodrop, and finally genotyped by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) PCR. All statistical analyses were performed by SNPAlyze version 8.1 and SPSS version 20. Results revealed no significant association of all three studied variants with the susceptibility to nicotine dependence in any models of inheritance. However, there were five haplotypes with an overall frequency higher than 0.05; no significant impact of any of them on nicotine dependence was observed. Altogether, rs2236857, rs2236855, and rs760589 were not associated with nicotine dependence among northern Iranians.

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We are very thankful from our colleagues in the Cellular and Molecular Research Center, especially Dr. Nozhat Zebardast for her precious supports and helps.

Author information




Mr. Alireza Sharafshah did all of experimental section of this research; also, he wrote some section of the paper including “Methods” and “Discussion” sections. Dr. Bahram Soltani had a full-time supervision on the experiment parts of the research and was being involved with the design of the research. Dr. Parvaneh Keshavarz was the main designer of the research, with full supervision on both experimental and writing parts of the paper; also, she wrote the majority of the paper.

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Correspondence to Parvaneh Keshavarz.

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All participants consented to take part in a process approved by the Ethics Committee for Human Genome/Gene Research [IR.GUMS.REC.1396.532], and it is certified that the study is performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Sharafshah, A., Soltani, B. & Keshavarz, P. Association Study of Opioid Receptor Delta-Type 1 (OPRD1) Gene Variants with Nicotine Dependence in an Iranian Population. J Mol Neurosci (2021).

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  • Association
  • Nicotine dependence
  • OPRD1
  • Variant
  • Haplotype