Complement-mediated inflammation plays a vital role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), implicating pro-inflammatory factor interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) secretion. Brain samples and contralateral hemiencephalon were all collected and detected by Western blot. NLRP3 expression was located by dual immunofluorescence staining at 1, 3, and 5 days post-ICH. Brain water content was examined post-ICH. The neural deficit scores were evaluated by observers blindly. ILs were detected by ELISA. SiRNAs targeting NLRP3 (siNLRP3), siASC, and siControl were injected to inhibit NLRP3 function. To test the complement activation via Nod-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), normal rabbit complement (NRC) was injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to facilitate the complement function. As a result, complement 3a (C3a) and complement 5a (C5a) were upregulated during the ICH-induced neuroinflammation, and ablation of C3 attenuates ICH-induced IL-1β release. Though the LPS rescues the neuroinflammation in the ICH model, C3 deficiency attenuates the LPS-induced inflammatory effect. The NLRP3 inflammasome was activated after ICH and was located in the microglial cell of the mouse brain, which exhibits a time-dependent manner. However, the number of NLRP3/Iba-1 dual-labeled cells in the C3−/− group is less than that in the WT group in each time course, respectively. IL-1β and IL-18 released in perihematoma tissue, caspase-1-p20, brain water content, and behavioral outcomes were attenuated in the siNLRP3 and siASC groups than in the siControl and ICH groups. We also found that 5% of complement supplement enhances ICH-induced IL-1β release, while NLRP3 and ASC inhibition attenuates it. In conclusion, complement-induced ICH neuroinflammation depended on NLRP3 activation, which facilities LPS- and ICH-induced neuroinflammation, and NLRP3 is required for ICH-induced inflammation.
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81660211) and the Major Program of Science and Technology Foundation of Zunyi (Guizhou) Technology Bureau.
STY was involved in performing the majority of the laboratory-based work and writing of the manuscript. JLC, WC, and RMF helped with laboratory work concerning control tissues and were involved in the writing of the manuscript. GL, YCZ, SJ, XPX, and CH were involved in collecting data, statistics, and troubleshooting. STY and PW were involved in conceptualizing and planning of the presented work.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All animal studies followed the guidelines outlined in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals from the National Institute of Health and were approved by the Zunyi Hospital of Zunyi Animal Welfare Committee.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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