Effects of functionally diverse calpain system on immune cells

Abstract

Calpains are a family of nonlysosomal cysteine proteases, which play important roles in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Locations of them dictates the functions so that they are classified as ubiquitously expressed calpains and tissue-specific calpains. Recent studies are mainly focused on conventional calpains (calpain-1,2) in development and diseases, and increasing people pay attention to other subtypes of calpains but may not been summarized appropriately. Growing evidence suggests that calpains are also involved in immune regulation. However, seldom articles review the regulation of calpains on immune cells. The aim of this article is to review the research progress of each calpain isozyme and the effect of calpains on immune cells, especially the promotion effect of calpains on the immune response of macrophage, neutrophils, dendritic cells, mast cells, natural killed cells, and lymphocytes. These effects would hold great promise for the clinical application of calpains as a practicable therapeutic option in the treatment of immune related diseases.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos.81671567, 81871244 and 81771756), Jiangsu Province “333” project (BRA2018016), Social development Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BE2019700), Chinese Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2018 M642187), Social development Foundation of Zhenjiang (SH2019076).

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Correspondence to Fang Liu.

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Chen, Y., Su, Z. & Liu, F. Effects of functionally diverse calpain system on immune cells. Immunol Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12026-021-09177-5

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Keywords

  • Calpain system
  • Immune regulation
  • Immune cells
  • Calpain inhibition