Immunologic Research

, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 410–418 | Cite as

Irregular antibodies in no hemolytic autoimmune diseases are able to induce erythrophagocytosis

  • Paola Ester López-Díaz
  • María del Rocío Ruiz-Olivera
  • Luis Alberto Hernández-Osorio
  • Jaime Vargas-Arzola
  • Xareni Valle-Jiménez
  • Sergio Roberto Aguilar-Ruiz
  • Honorio Torres-Aguilar
Mechanism in Autoimmunity


Irregular antibodies are produced by alloimmunization because of pregnancies or blood transfusions. They are called “irregular” due to target erythrocyte antigens from “rare blood systems,” those different from the ABO system. Irregular antibodies have been widely investigated in immunohematology since their presence in blood donors may lead to difficulties in blood typing and in blood cross-matching, or to induce hemolytic transfusion reactions. Nevertheless, their incidence and participation in the physiopathology of autoimmune diseases have not been thoroughly studied. In this work, we analyzed the presence and pro-hemolytic capabilities of irregular antibodies in patients with different autoimmune diseases lacking signs of hemolytic anemia, in comparison with healthy multiparous women. Five of 141 autoimmune patients (3.5 %) and two of 77 multiparous women (2.6 %) were positive. Although frequency was relatively low and similar in both populations, the targeted antigens were Kell (k, Kpb, Jsb) and Luth (Lub) in multiparous women, and the same plus Duffy (Fya), Kidd (Jka) and MNS (M, s) in autoimmune patients. Irregular antibodies from autoimmune patients did not induce complement-mediated hemolysis (intravascular), but they were able to induce macrophages-mediated phagocytosis (extravascular hemolysis) in vitro. It is the first approach exploring the presence of irregular antibodies associated with the loss of immune tolerance and demonstrating their hemolytic potential in autoimmune patients without hemolytic manifestations. The presence of irregular antibodies targeted to Duffy (Fya), Kidd (Jka) and MNS (M, s) antigens only in autoimmune patients suggests a loss of immune tolerance to these erythrocyte antigens.


Anti-erythrocyte autoantibodies Autoimmune diseases Extravascular hemolysis Hemolytic anemia 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paola Ester López-Díaz
    • 1
  • María del Rocío Ruiz-Olivera
    • 2
  • Luis Alberto Hernández-Osorio
    • 1
  • Jaime Vargas-Arzola
    • 1
  • Xareni Valle-Jiménez
    • 3
  • Sergio Roberto Aguilar-Ruiz
    • 3
  • Honorio Torres-Aguilar
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemical Sciences FacultyAutonomous University “Benito Juárez” of OaxacaOaxaca CityMexico
  2. 2.Blood Bank and Laboratory, Number 1 Regional HospitalSocial Security Mexican InstituteOaxaca CityMexico
  3. 3.Medicine and Surgery FacultyAutonomous University “Benito Juárez” of OaxacaOaxaca CityMexico

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