Rapidly progressive diffuse systemic sclerosis after local vitamins A, D and E complex injections: literature review and report of two cases
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The term autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) or Shoenfeld’s syndrome refers to a wide group of immune-mediated diseases triggered by external agents. Several substances, such as vaccine adjuvants, squalene and silicone implants, are implied in the pathogenesis of ASIA syndrome. Treatment and prognosis of this complex condition are not completely known due to lack of good quality evidence. After a brief introductory literature review on ASIA, we report here two cases of patients that developed rapidly progressive systemic sclerosis clinical features after multiple intramuscular local injections of a substance recommended by a non-medical professional called ADE. ADE is an oily vitamin complex for veterinary use, and it was used in these cases for cosmetic muscular definition and enhancement purpose. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to describe the relation between injections of ADE and the development of ASIA with severe systemic sclerosis phenotype. Further investigation is needed to better understand the pathophysiology and to provide the basis for the treatment of this condition.
KeywordsSystemic sclerosis Autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) Shoenfeld’s syndrome ADE
We would like to thank Drs. Maria de Fátima Guimarães Scotelaro Alves, Clarissa Canella Moraes do Carmo, Pedro Antônio Ramon Haddad, Tathiana Fernandes Mattos Bahia Alves, and Verônica de Brito Mello Maia for the contributions in the cases.
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Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interests.