Gain-of-function SNPs in NLRP3 and IL1B genes confer protection against obesity and T2D: undiscovered role of inflammasome genetics in metabolic homeostasis?
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Inflammation represents a cause, but also a consequence of obesity, contributing to disrupt metabolic homeostasis. Previously associated to high fat diets and physical inactivity, the contribution of gut microbiota and genetic inheritance are also being evaluated as risk factors for obesity. 
Increasing, and sometimes contrasting, findings have revealed the involvement of inflammasome in the development of obesity and obesity-associated diseases in experimental models. Inflammasome is a cytoplasmic complex responsible for the activation of caspase-1 and the consequent production of the biologic active form of interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18. Several intracellular innate receptors (i.e., NLR Family Pyrin Domain Containing 1/NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRP6, Absent in Melanoma 2/AIM2) sense pathogen-associated and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), respectively, and became able to mount an inflammasome. These molecules are expressed in leucocytes, as well as in non-immune...
This study was supported by Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) (Grants numbers: 2015/23395-6;) and “Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientıfico e Tecnologico” (CNPq). A.P. is a recipient of a CNPq fellowship. J.M.R. was a recipient of a PIBIC Fellowship. V.N.C.L. is a recipient of a FAPESP-funded fellowship. D.L. is a recipient of a UFAM-funded PhD Fellowship.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Research involved human participants. All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Review Board of the “Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte” hospital, and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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