Secretome of Differentiated PC12 Cells Restores the Monocrotophos-Induced Damages in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and SHSY-5Y Cells: Role of Autophagy and Mitochondrial Dynamics
A perturbed cellular homeostasis is a key factor associated with xenobiotic exposure resulting in various ailments. The local cellular microenvironment enriched with secretory components aids in cell–cell communication that restores this homeostasis. Deciphering the underlying mechanism behind this restorative potential of secretome could serve as a possible solution to many health hazards. We, therefore, explored the protective efficacy of the secretome of differentiated PC12 cells with emphasis on induction of autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Monocrotophos (MCP), a widely used neurotoxic organophosphate, was used as the test compound at sublethal concentration. The conditioned medium (CM) of differentiated PC12 cells comprising of their secretome restored the cell viability, oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in MCP-challenged human mesenchymal stem cells and SHSY-5Y, a human neuroblastoma cell line. Delving further to identify the underlying mechanism of this restorative effect we observed a marked increase in the expression of autophagy markers LC3, Beclin-1, Atg5 and Atg7. Exposure to autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine, led to a reduced expression of these markers with a concomitant increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic caspase-3. Besides that, the increased mitochondrial fission in MCP-exposed cells was balanced with increased fusion in the presence of CM facilitated by AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling cascade. Mitochondrial dysfunctions are strongly associated with autophagy activation and as per our findings, cellular secretome too induces autophagy. Therefore, connecting these three potential apices can be a major breakthrough in repair and rescue of xenobiotic-damaged tissues and cells.
KeywordsSecretome Conditioned medium PC12 cells Mesenchymal stem cells Autophagy Mitochondrial dynamics
Financial support from Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Government of India, New Delhi, India [Grant No. BSC0111/INDEPTH/CSIR Network Project] and Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, India [Grant No. SR/SO/Z 36/2007/91/10] is acknowledged.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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