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Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 213–223 | Cite as

Chitin and Its Effects on Inflammatory and Immune Responses

  • Daniel Elieh Ali Komi
  • Lokesh Sharma
  • Charles S. Dela Cruz
Article

Abstract

Chitin, a potential allergy-promoting pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), is a linear polymer composed of N-acetylglucosamine residues which are linked by β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds. Mammalians are potential hosts for chitin-containing protozoa, fungi, arthropods, and nematodes; however, mammalians themselves do not synthetize chitin and thus it is considered as a potential target for recognition by mammalian immune system. Chitin is sensed primarily in the lungs or gut where it activates a variety of innate (eosinophils, macrophages) and adaptive immune cells (IL-4/IL-13 expressing T helper type-2 lymphocytes). Chitin induces cytokine production, leukocyte recruitment, and alternative macrophage activation. Intranasal or intraperitoneal administration of chitin (varying in size, degree of acetylation and purity) to mice has been applied as a routine approach to investigate chitin’s priming effects on innate and adaptive immunity. Structural chitin present in microorganisms is actively degraded by host true chitinases, including acidic mammalian chitinases and chitotriosidase into smaller fragments that can be sensed by mammalian receptors such as FIBCD1, NKR-P1, and RegIIIc. Immune recognition of chitin also involves pattern recognition receptors, mainly via TLR-2 and Dectin-1, to activate immune cells to induce cytokine production and creation of an immune network that results in inflammatory and allergic responses. In this review, we will focus on various immunological aspects of the interaction between chitin and host immune system such as sensing, interactions with immune cells, chitinases as chitin degrading enzymes, and immunologic applications of chitin.

Keywords

Chitin Chitinase Immune system Innate immunity Adaptive immunity 

Abbreviations

PAMP

Pathogen-associated molecular pattern

PBMCs

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells

AMCase

Acidic mammalian chitinase

Chit1

Chitotriosidase

CLPs

Chitinase like proteins

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

I hereby state that none of the coauthors and the corresponding author of this paper have a conflict of interest and it has been prepared for publication without using any fund. Moreover, the paper does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of Interest

Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Lokesh Sharma, and Charles S. Dela Cruz declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Elieh Ali Komi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lokesh Sharma
    • 3
  • Charles S. Dela Cruz
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Immunology Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  2. 2.Department of ImmunologyTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal MedicineYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  4. 4.Department of Microbial PathogenesisYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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