Stem Cell Reviews and Reports

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 482–490 | Cite as

L-Glutamine in vitro Modulates some Immunomodulatory Properties of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

  • Guilherme Galvão dos Santos
  • Araceli Aparecida Hastreiter
  • Talita Sartori
  • Primavera Borelli
  • Ricardo Ambrósio Fock


Glutamine (GLUT) is a nonessential amino acid that can become conditionally essential under stress conditions, being able to act in the modulation of the immune responses. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to their capability in the modulation of immune responses through cell-cell contact and by the secretion of soluble factors. Considering that GLUT is an immunonutrient and little is known about the influence of GLUT on the capability of MSCs to modulate immune cells, this work aims to investigate how variations in GLUT concentrations in vitro could affect some immunomodulatory properties of MSCs. In order to evaluate the effects of GLUT on MSCs immunomodulatory properties, cell proliferation rates, the expression of NFκB and STAT-3, and the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β and TNF-α by MSCs were assessed. Based on our findings, GLUT at high doses (10 mM) augmented the proliferation of MSCs and modulated immune responses by decreasing levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-6, and by increasing levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β. In addition, MSCs cultured in higher GLUT concentrations (10 mM) expressed lower levels of NF-κB and higher levels of STAT-3. Furthermore, conditioned media from MSCs cultured at higher GLUT concentrations (10 mM) reduced lymphocyte and macrophage proliferation, increased IL-10 production by both cells types, and decreased IFN-γ production by lymphocytes. Overall, this study showed that 10 mM of GLUT is able to modify immunomodulatory properties of MSCs.


L-Glutamine Mesenchymal stem cells Macrophages and lymphocytes Cytokines Immunomodulation 



The authors thank FAPESP for financial support. Fock RA and Borelli P are fellows of the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Tecnologia (CNPq).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guilherme Galvão dos Santos
    • 1
  • Araceli Aparecida Hastreiter
    • 1
  • Talita Sartori
    • 1
  • Primavera Borelli
    • 1
  • Ricardo Ambrósio Fock
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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