Concentrations and Health Risk Assessment of Metallic Trace Elements in Ready-to-Eat Braised and Flamed Chickens in Burkina Faso


Braised and flamed chickens known as “poulet bicyclette” are famous and popular street food in Burkina Faso. Although they are important sources of a wide range of essential trace elements for humans, they can also contain toxic metals. The aim of the study was to assess the concentrations and health risk of metallic trace elements (Ag, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb) in ready-to-eat braised and flamed chickens in Burkina Faso. The concentrations and health risk assessment were estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry and hazard quotient method, respectively. The concentrations of Cu (3.12 mg kg−1), Fe (20.17 mg kg−1), and Ni (0.22 mg kg−1) were about 2 times higher in flamed chickens than in braised ones. Cd (0.45 mg kg−1) and Cr (2.50 mg kg−1) were 2 to 5 times more concentrated in braised chickens than flamed chickens. Pb was found in 72.72% of braised chicken and 62.06% of flamed chicken samples, above the maximum limit set by the JECFA. The daily intakes of Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn contributed for less than 2% to the recommended daily intakes set by the Institute of Medicine of USA for both males and females, whereas Cr contributed for more than 20% from braised chicken. The estimated monthly intakes of Cd represented about 1.92–4.06% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake of Cd set by FAO/WHO. A non-cancer risk estimated as hazard index has been recorded at the maximum level of consumption for female consumer group for flamed chicken (HI = 2.14). The estimated cancer index risk in this study is below the reference value (10−4) set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA).

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Data Availability

Samples of the processed chickens at University Joseph KI-ZERBO of Ouagadougou.


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Special thanks go to the anonymous reviewers and editors for their contributions in improving the manuscript.


This study is funded by the Académie de Recherche et d’ Enseignement Supérieur (ARES), Belgique under The QualiSani project. The funder had no role in the study design, data collection, analysis, interpretation of data, and writing of the manuscript.

Author information




BSRB, AB, AS, JTO, EK, DJH, MLS, AS, and IHNB conceived and designed the experiment study. BSRB, AB, AS, JTO, AS, and IHNB performed the study. BSRB, AB, AS, JTO, EK, DJH, MLS, AS, and IHNB wrote the paper.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Imaël Henri Nestor Bassolé.

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The design and conduct of the survey were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University Joseph KI-ZERBO of Ouagadougou.

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Informed consents from participants were obtained prior to interview.

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Bazié, B.S.R., Bougma, A., Séré, A. et al. Concentrations and Health Risk Assessment of Metallic Trace Elements in Ready-to-Eat Braised and Flamed Chickens in Burkina Faso. Biol Trace Elem Res 199, 1556–1565 (2021).

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  • Chicken
  • Flamed
  • Braised
  • Metallic trace elements
  • Daily intake
  • Risk assessment