Dules auriga, a native Brazilian teleost, was applied as a sentinel species regarding metal contamination at Ilha Grande Bay, previously considered a reference site in Southeastern Brazil. Cytosolic (S50) and metallothionein-bound (HTS50) hepatic iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd), and silver (Ag) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), while metallothionein (MT) concentrations were determined by polarography. Ag concentrations in both cytosolic fractions were below the limit of detection. All other HTS50 metal contents were significantly lower than S50 contents. No significant associations were found for MT. Fe and Mn S50 were positively and moderately correlated to total length, as well as HTS50 Mn, while total weight was correlated to both Mn fractions, suggesting that environmental Mn and Fe concentrations may influence fish growth. A moderate correlation between the condition factor and the S50 Cu fraction was observed, also indicating that Cu may affect fish growth. Inter-element correlations were observed, including between Cd, a toxic element, and Mn and Zn, both essential elements. Calculated molar ratios indicate that both Mn and Zn are in molar excesses compared with Cd, corroborating literature assessments regarding protective Mn and Zn effects against Cd. Lack of MT correlations suggests that metal concentrations may not be high enough to reach an MT induction threshold and that MT variability is probably linked to environmental metal concentrations. Therefore, the increased environmental contaminant levels observed in the study area indicate the need for biomonitoring efforts aiming at the application of efficient mitigation measures.
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The authors are grateful to the Laboratório de Biologia e Tecnologia Pesqueira group for the help in Dules auriga samplings, measurements, and dissections.
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Data will be made available upon request.
MV was funded by Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) grants.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The animals used in this study were processed in conformity with the ethical principles of animal experimentation, elaborated by the Brazilian College for Animal Experimentation (COBEA). Fish sampling was authorized under Permit No. 13012-1, April 10, 2007.
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Hauser-Davis, R.A., Silva-Junior, D.R., Linde-Arias, A.R. et al. Cytosolic and Metallothionein-Bound Hepatic Metals and Detoxification in a Sentinel Teleost, Dules auriga, from Southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Biol Trace Elem Res 199, 744–752 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02195-8
- Metal contamination
- Marine pollution
- Metal detoxification