The present study investigated the status of calcium and magnesium as well as essential trace elements including iodine, selenium, copper, iron, and zinc in adults residing in the Zhytomyr region of Ukraine. In addition, the relative risk of goiter occurrence was evaluated. In this comparative study, 40 adults without goiter (control group) and 16 adults with diagnosed nodular goiter (NG) were examined. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for the measurements of Mg, Ca, Se, Zn, Cu, and Fe in serum of patients with NG and control group. Patients with nodular goiter had lower serum values of Ca, Mg, Se, Cu, Fe, and Zn than those in the control group. The presence of mild iodine deficiency was evident in both groups with the median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) 80.5 μg/L in the control group and 64.5 μg/L in goiter group. There was a positive association between goiter presence and low concentration of Ca in serum (odds ratio (OR) = 2.29 (1.26–3.55), p < 0.05) in the NG group. High relative risk of goiter was observed at low concentrations of magnesium (OR = 3.33 (1.39–7.62), p < 0.05) and selenium (OR = 1.63, (1.16–1.78), p < 0.05) in comparison with OR values in the control group. Low concentrations of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Se in serum combined with reduced UIE resulted in the highest risk of goiter (OR = 12.5, (2.15–79.42), p < 0.01). This study proved that Thyroglobulin concentration in serum is the reliable indicator of nodular goiter. We also suggest that a combination of low concentrations of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Se in blood serum, and reduced iodine concentration in urine resulted in the highest risk of nodular goiter development.
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The authors are grateful to the staff of Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Monitoring of Toxic Compounds for their help and instrumental support. Also, the authors are thankful to Prof. Mykola Tronko for his valuable comments and help.
The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of V.P. Komissarenko Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism and all participants gave informed consent before blood and urine sampling.
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Kravchenko, V.I., Andrusyshyna, I.M., Luzanchuk, I.A. et al. Association Between Thyroid Hormone Status and Trace Elements in Serum of Patients with Nodular Goiter. Biol Trace Elem Res 196, 393–399 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01943-9
- Nodular goiter
- Thyroid gland
- Thyroid hormones