Fluoride, as an environmental toxin, causes damage to intestinal mucosa. It may promote pathogen infection by increasing the intestinal mucosa permeability. In this study, the colonic fecal samples from the control group (C group, 0 mg/L NaF for 60 days) and the fluoride group (F group, 100 mg/L NaF for 60 days) were subjected to high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to verify the effects of fluoride on the colonic flora of animals. Results revealed a total of 253 operative taxonomical units (OTUs) in two groups, and 22 unique OTUs occurred in the F group. Fluoride increased the microbiota diversity and species richness of the colon. Concretely, the abundance of the Tenericutes was increased at the level of the phyla in the F group. In addition, in the F group, significant differences at the genus level were observed in Faecalibaculum, Alloprevotella, [Eubacterium]_xylanophilum_group, Prevotellaceae_UCG-001, and Ruminiclostridium_9, compared to the C group. Among them, except for the reduction in Faecalibaculum, the other four bacteria were increased in the F group. In summary, the intestinal microbial composition of mice was reconstituted by the presence of fluoride, and the significantly changing bacteria may partly account for the pathogenesis of fluoride-induced intestinal dysfunction.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Jha SK, Mishra VK, Sharma DK, Damodaran T (2011) Fluoride in the environment and its metabolism in humans. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 211:121–142
Rashid A, Guan DX, Farooqi A, Khan S, Zahir S, Jehan S, Khattak SA, Khan MS, Khan R (2018) Fluoride prevalence in groundwater around a fluorite mining area in the flood plain of the River Swat, Pakistan. Sci Total Environ 635:203–215
Jagtap S, Yenkie MK, Labhsetwar N, Rayalu S (2012) Fluoride in drinking water and defluoridation of water. Chem Rev 112(4):2454–2466
Sharma D, Singh A, Verma K, Paliwal S, Sharma S, Dwivedi J (2017) Fluoride: A review of pre-clinical and clinical studies. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 56:297–313
Death CE, Coulson G, Hufschmid J, Morris WK, Gould J, Stevenson M (2019) When less is more: a comparison of models to predict fluoride accumulation in free-ranging kangaroos. Sci Total Environ 660:531–540
Whitford GM (1996) The metabolism and toxicity of fluoride. Monogr Oral Sci 16 Rev 2:1–153
Wang H, Liu J, Zhao W, Zhang Z, Li S, Li S, Zhu S, Zhou B (2019) Effect of fluoride on small intestine morphology and serum cytokine contents in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 189(2):511–518
Luo Q, Cui H, Peng X, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, Liu J, Deng Y (2013) Intestinal IgA+ cell numbers as well as IgA, IgG, and IgM contents correlate with mucosal humoral immunity of broilers during supplementation with high fluorine in the diets. Biol Trace Elem Res 154(1):62–72
Luo Q, Cui H, Peng X, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, Liu J, Deng Y (2013) Suppressive effects of dietary high fluorine on the intestinal development in broilers. Biol Trace Elem Res 156(1-3):153–165
Kim YS, Ho SB (2010) Intestinal goblet cells and mucins in health and disease: recent insights and progress. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 12(5):319–330
Kitajima S, Morimoto M, Sagara E, Shimizu C, Ikeda Y (2001) Dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in germ-free IQI/Jic mice. Exp Anim 50(5):387–395
Johansson ME, Gustafsson JK, Sjöberg KE, Petersson J, Holm L, Sjövall H, Hansson GC (2010) Bacteria penetrate the inner mucus layer before inflammation in the dextran sulfate colitis model. Plos One 5(8):e12238
Barko PC, Mcmichael MA, Swanson KS, Williams DA (2018) The gastrointestinal microbiome: A review. J Vet Intern Med 32(1):9–25
Tilocca B, Burbach K, Heyer CME, Hoelzle LE, Mosenthin R, Stefanski V, Camarinha-Silva A, Seifert J (2017) Dietary changes in nutritional studies shape the structural and functional composition of the pigs’ fecal microbiome-from days to weeks. Microbiome 5(1):144
Lozupone CA, Stombaugh JI, Gordon JI, Jansson JK, Knight R (2012) Diversity, stability and resilience of the human gut microbiota. Nature 489(7415):220–230
Liu J, Wang H, Lin L, Miao C, Zhang Y, Zhou B (2019) Intestinal barrier damage involved in intestinal microflora changes in fluoride-induced mice. Chemosphere 234:409–418
Allaire JM, Crowley SM, Law HT, Chang SY, Ko HJ, Vallance BA (2018) The intestinal epithelium: central coordinator of mucosal immunity. Trends Immunol 39(9):677–696
Qi Y, Sun J, Ren L, Cao X, Dong J, Tao K, Guan X, Cui Y, Su W (2019) Intestinal microbiota is altered in patients with gastric cancer from Shanxi Province, China. Dig Dis Sci 64(5):1193–1203
Follin-Arbelet B, Moum B (2016) Fluoride: a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease? Scand J Gastroenterol 51(9):1019–1024
Lambert GP (2009) Stress-induced gastrointestinal barrier dysfunction and its inflammatory effects. J Anim Sci 87(14 Suppl):E101–E108
Lloyd-Price J, Abu-Ali G, Huttenhower C (2016) The healthy human microbiome. Genome Med 8(1):51
Augenstein WL, Spoerke DG, Kulig KW, Hall AH, Hall PK, Riggs BS, Saadi M, El RBH (1991) Fluoride ingestion in children: a review of 87 cases. Pediatrics 88(5):907–912
Integrative HMP Research Network Consortium (2019) The integrative human microbiome project. Nature 569(7758):641–648
Kim HB, Isaacson RE (2015) The pig gut microbial diversity: Understanding the pig gut microbial ecology through the next generation high throughput sequencing. Vet Mmicrobiol 177(3-4):242–251
Wan X, Bi J, Gao X, Tian F, Wang X, Li N, Li J (2015) Partial enteral nutrition preserves elements of gut barrier function, including innate immunity, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) level, and intestinal microbiota in mice. Nutrients 7(8):6294–6312
Ma H, Zhang B, Hu Y, Wang J, Liu J, Qin R, Lv S, Wang S (2019) Correlation analysis of intestinal redox state with the gut microbiota reveals the positive intervention of tea polyphenols on hyperlipidemia in high-fat diet fed mice. J Agric Food Chem 67(26):7325–7335
Chen W, Liu F, Ling Z, Tong X, Xiang C (2012) Human intestinal lumen and mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer. PLoS One 7(6):e39743
Ke X, Walker A, Haange SB, Lagkouvardos I, Liu Y, Schmitt-Kopplin P, von Bergen M, Jehmlich N, He X, Clavel T, Cheung PCK (2019) Synbiotic-driven improvement of metabolic disturbances is associated with changes in the gut microbiome in diet-induced obese mice. Mol Metab 22:96–109
Meehan CJ, Beiko RG (2014) A phylogenomic view of ecological specialization in the Lachnospiraceae, a family of digestive tract-associated bacteria. Genome Biol Evol 6(3):703–713
Chauhan SS, Mahmood A, Ojha S (2013) Ethanol and age enhances fluoride toxicity through oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in rat intestine. Mol Cell Biochem 384(1-2):251–262
Kang Y, Li Y, Du Y, Guo L, Chen M, Huang X, Yang F, Hong J, Kong X (2019) Konjaku flour reduces obesity in mice by modulating the composition of the gut microbiota. Int J Obes (Lond) 43(8):1631–1643
Louis S, Tappu RM, Damms-Machado A, Huson DH, Bischoff SC (2016) Characterization of the gut microbial community of obese patients following a weight-loss intervention using whole metagenome shotgun sequencing. PloS One 11(2):e0149564
Yue S, Liu J, Wang W, Wang A, Yang X, Guan H, Wang C, Yan D (2019) Berberine treatment-emergent mild diarrhea associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis. Biomed Pharmacother 116:109002
Su T, Liu R, Lee A, Long Y, Du L, Lai S, Chen X, Wang L, Si J, Owyang C, Chen S (2018) Altered intestinal microbiota with increased abundance of prevotella is associated with high risk of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2018:6961783
This work was supported by the Top Young Innovative Talents of Shanxi Agricultural University (Grant No. TYIT201408).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
Operative taxonomical units (OTU) data in the control group (C group) and the fluoride group (F group). (XLSX 19 kb)
Relative abundance data of bacteria in the control group (C group) and the fluoride group (F group) at the phylum level. (XLSX 9 kb)
Relative abundance data of the top 20 bacteria in the control group (C group) and the fluoride group (F group) at the genus level. (XLSX 9 kb)
The top 50 genera correlation analysis using the SparCC method in the two groups. (XLSX 10 kb)
About this article
Cite this article
Fu, R., Niu, R., Li, R. et al. Fluoride-Induced Alteration in the Diversity and Composition of Bacterial Microbiota in Mice Colon. Biol Trace Elem Res 196, 537–544 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01942-w
- 16S rRNA sequencing
- Intestinal microflora