Undaria pinnatifida is a brown macroalga considered a high quality natural food because of its numerous health benefits. The aim of this paper is to provide seasonal information on the chemical content of blades and sporophylls of U. pinnatifida from San Jorge Gulf (SJG, Chubut, Argentina) in order to evaluate their different uses. Moreover, samples of algae deposited on the beach are also studied. A multi-elemental analysis is made by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Sixteen elements are quantified: As, Br, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, V and Zn. The results reveal that the mineral content in blades of U. pinnatifida is high, especially in autumn. Some elements show an important seasonal variation, such as: K (14-54.8 g kg−1), P (2.7-7.0 g kg−1), Sr (361–569 mg kg−1), Fe (62–140 mg kg−1), Zn (8–103 mg kg−1), Br (45–94 mg kg−1) and Rb (4–24 mg kg−1). In the case of potentially toxic elements, a variation was seen mainly in arsenic, with higher values during summer and autumn. The concentrations of nickel and lead are below the limit of detection (0.9 mg kg−1). Sporophylls contain high concentrations of macro and micronutrients, with maximum values in spring. Besides, reproductive structures showed higher total arsenic values than blades. This could indicate that arsenic is mainly accumulated in sporophylls. Algae deposited on the beach are considered a waste; but they show a similar elemental composition to the samples extracted from the sea. We concluded that all samples analyzed could be used as food or fertilizers by local populations.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Cobalt levels in the samples were below its corresponding limit of detection and for that reason it was possible use it as internal standard.
Taboada MC, Millán R, Miguez MI (2013) Nutritional value of the marine algae wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and nori (Porphyra purpurea) as food supplements. J Appl Phycol 25:1271–1276. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-012-9951-9
Rebours C, Marinho-Soriano E, Zertuche-González JA, Hayashi L, Vásquez JA, Kradolfer P, Soriano G, Abreu MH, Bay-Larsen I, Hovelsrud G, Radven R, Robledo D (2014) Seaweeds: an opportunity for wealth and sustainable livelihood for coastal communities. J Appl Phycol 26:1939–1951. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-014-0304-8
Fung A, Hamid N, Lu J (2013) Fucoxanthin content and antioxidant properties of Undaria pinnatifida. Food Chem 136:1055–1062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.024
Rafiquzzaman SM, Kim EY, Lee JM, Mohibbullah M, Alam MB, Moon S, Kim JM, Kong IS (2015) Anti-Alzheimers and anti-inflammatory activities of glycoprotein purified from edible brown alga Undaria pinnatifida. Food Res Int 77:118–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2015.08.021
Piriz ML, Eyras MC, Rostagno CM (2003) Changes in biomass and botanical composition of beach cast seaweed in a disturbed coastal area from Argentine Patagonia. J Appl Phycol 15:67–74. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022959005072
Tang J, Wang M, Zhou Q, Nagata S (2011) Improved composting of Undaria pinnatifida seaweed by inoculation with Halomonas and Gracilibacillus sp. Isolated from marine environments. Bioresour Technol 102:2925–2930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.11.064
Chakraborty S, Bhattacharya T, Singh G, Maity JP (2014) Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: A biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 100:61–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.12.003
Plaza Cazón J, Viera M, Donati E, Guibal E (2013) Zinc and cadmium removal by biosorption on Undaria pinnatifida in batch and continuous processes. J Environ Manag 129:423–434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.07.011
Chen H, Zhou D, Luo G, Zhang S, Chen J (2015) Macroalgae for biofuels production: progress and perspectives. Renew Sust Energ Rev 47:427–437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.03.086
Skrzypczyk VM, Hermon KM, Norambuena F, Turchini GM, Keast R, Bellgrove A (2019) Is Australian seaweed worth eating? Nutritional and sensorial properties of wild-harvested Australian versus commercially available seaweeds. J Appl Phycol 31(1):709–724 http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30110338
Singh NK, Raghubanshi AS, Upadhyay AK, Rai UN (2016) Arsenic and other heavy metals accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 130:224–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.04.024
Rubio C, Napoleone G, Luis-González G, Gutiérrez AJ, González-Weller D, Hardisson A, Revert C (2017) Metals in edible seaweed. Chemosphere. 17:572–579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.01.064
Balboa EM, Gallego-Fábrega C, Moure A, Dominguez H (2015) Study of the seasonal variation on proximate composition of oven-dried Sargassum muticum biomass collected in Vigo Ria, Spain. J Appl Phycol 28(3):1943–1953 http://rd.springer.com/journal/10811
Lee HS, Cho YH, Park SO, Kye SH, Kim BH, Hahm TS, Kim M, Kim C (2006) Dietary exposure of the Korean population to arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. J Food Compos Anal 19:831–837. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2005.10.006
Miedico O, Pompa C, Tancredu C, Cera A, Pellegrino E, Tarallo M, Chiaravalle AE (2017) Characterisation and chemometric evaluation of 21 trace elements in three edible seaweed species imported from south–east Asia. J Food Compos Anal 64(2):188–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.09.004
James K (2017) A review of the impacts from invasion by the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida. Waikato Regional Council Technical Report 2016/40:32 p. http://hdl.handle.net/2292/33578
Casas G, Piriz ML (1996) Survey of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in Golfo Nuevo, Argentina. Hydrobiologia. 326/327:213–215. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00047809
Martin JP, Cuevas JM (2006) First record of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in Southern Patagonia, Argentina. BiolInv. 8:1399–1402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-006-0004-7
Dellatorre FG, Amoroso R, Saravia J, Orensanz JM (2014) Rapid expansion and potential range of the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida in the Southwest Atlantic. Aquat Invasions 9(4):467–478. https://doi.org/10.3391/ai.2014.9.4.05
Meretta PE, Matula CV, Casas G (2012) Occurrence of the alien kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) in Mar del Plata, Argentina. BioInvasions Records 1(1):59–63. https://doi.org/10.3391/bir.2012.1.1.13
Eyras MC, Deffosé GE, Dellatorre BF (2008) Seaweed compost as an amendment for horticultural soils in Patagonia, Argentina. Compost Sci Util 16(2):119–124. https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2008.10702366
Borgese L, Bilo F, Dalipi R, Bontempi E, Depero LE (2015) Total reflection X-ray fluorescence as a tool for food screening. Spectrochim Acta B 113:1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sab.2015.08.001
Salomone VN, Riera M, Cherchietti L, Custo G, Muniain C (2017a) Seasonal determination of trace and ultra-trace content in Macrocystis pyrifera from San Jorge Gulf (Patagonia) by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. Spectrochim Acta B 131:74–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sab.2017.03.009
ISO 18507:2015 Surface chemical analysis–use of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy in biological and environmental analysis. https://www.sis.se/api/document/preview/919159/
Riget F, Johansen P, Asmund G (1995) Natural seasonal variation of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in brown seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus). Mar Pollut Bull 30(6):409–413. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(95)99847-W
Ometto F, Steinhovden KB, Kici H, Lumback J, Berg A, Karlsson A, Handá A, Wollan H, Ejlertsson J (2018) Seasonal variation of elements composition and biomethane in brown macroalgae. Biomass Bioenergy 109:31–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2017.11.006
Giordano M, Raven JA (2014) Nitrogen and sulfur assimilation in plants and algae. Aquat Bot 118:45–61 https://hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.aquabot.2014.06.012
Nielsen SP (2004) The biological role of strontium. Bone. 35:583–588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2004.04.026
Flores SRL, Dobbs J, Dunn MA (2015) Mineral nutrient content and iron bioavailability in common and Hawaiian seaweeds assessed by an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. J Food Compos Anal 43:185–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2015.06.008
Küpper FC, Miller EP, Andrews SJ, Hughes C, Carpenter LJ, Meyer-Klaucke W, Toyanna C, Muramatsu Y, Feiters MC, Carrano CJ (2018) Emission of volatile halodenated compounds, speciation and localization of bromine and iodine in the brown algal genome model Ectocarpus siliculosus. J Biol Inorg Chem. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00775-018-1539-7
Flodin C, Helidoniotis F, Whitfield FB (1999) Seasonal variation in bromophenol content and bromoperoxidase activity in Ulva lactuca. Phytochemistry. 51:135–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00668-2
De Boer E, van Kooyk Y, Tromp MGM, Plat H, Wever R (1986) Bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum: a novel class of enzymes containing vanadium as a prosthetic group? Biochim Biophys Acta 869:48–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4838(86)90308-0
Bishayee A, Waghray A, Patel MA, Chatterjee M (2010) Vanadium in the detection, prevention and treatment of cancer: the in vitro evidence. Cancer Lett 294:1–12 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20206439
Rehder D (2015) The role of vanadium in biology. Metallomics. 7:730–742. https://doi.org/10.1039/C4MT00304G
Taylor VF, Goodale B, Raab A, Schwerdtle T, Reamer K, Conklin S, Karagas MR, Francesconi KA (2017) Human exposure to organic arsenic species from seafood. Sci Total Environ 580:266–282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.113
Caliceti M, Argese E, Sfriso A, Pavoni B (2002) Heavy metal contamination in the seaweeds of the Venice lagoon. Chemosphere 47:443–454. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00292-2
Rupérez P (2002) Mineral content of edible marine seaweed. Food Chem 79:23–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00171-1
Kolb N, Vallorani L, Milanovic N, Stocchi V (2004) Evaluation of marine algae wakame (Undaria pinnatífida) and kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica) as food supplements. Food Technol Biotechnol 42(1):57–61
Dawczynski C, Schafer U, Leiterer M, Jahreis G (2007) Nutritional and toxicological importance of macro, trace and ultra-trace elements in algae food products. J Agric Food Chem 55:10470–10475. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0721500
Cofrades S, Lopez-Lopez I, Bravo I, Ruiz-Capillas C, Bastida S, Larrea MT, Jimenez Colmenero F (2010) Nutritional and antioxidant properties of different brown and red Spanish edible seaweeds. Food Sci Technol Int 16(5):361–370. https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013210367049
Park K-J, Kim BY, Park SK, Lee J-H, Kim YS, Choi HG, Nam KW (2012) Morphological and biochemical differences in three Undaria pinnatifida populations in Korea. Algae. 27(3):189–196. https://doi.org/10.4490/algae.2012.27.3.189
Marzocchi M, Badocco D, Piovan A, Pastore P, Di Marco V, Filippini R, Caniato R (2016) Metals in Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt edible seaweeds growing around Venice (Italy). J Appl Phycol 28:2605–2613. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-016-0793-8
Sato Y, Tamaki J, Kitayama F, Kusaka Y, Kodera Y, Koutani A, Iki M (2005) Development of a food-frequency questionnaire to measure the dietary calcium intake of adult japanese women. Tohoku J Exp Med 207:217–222. https://doi.org/10.1620/tjem.207.217
Almela C, Algora S, Benito V, Clemente MJ, Devesa V, Súñer MA, Vélez D, Montoro R (2002) Heavy metal, total arsenic, and inorganic arsenic contents of algae food products. J Agric Food Chem 50:918–923. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0110250
Almela C, Clemente MJ, Vélez D, Montoro R (2006) Total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, lead and cadmiun contents edible seaweed sold in Spain. Food Chem Toxicol 44:1901–1908. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2006.06.011
Gil MN, Torres AI, Commendatore MG, Marinho C, Atias A, Giarratano E, Casas GN (2014) Nutritive and Xenobiotic Compounds in the Alien Algae Undaria pinnatifida from Argentine Patagonia. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 68(3):553–565. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-014-0090-y
Hau L, Robertson J, White WL (2014) Metals in New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame). Open J Mar Sci 4:163–173. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojms.2014.43016
Synytsya A, Kim W, Kim S, Pohl R, Synytsya A, Kvasnicka F, Copikova J, Park J (2010) Structure and antitumour activity of fucoidan isolated sporophyll of Korean brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida. Carbohydr Polym 81:41–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.01.052
Zhou AP, Robertson J, Hamid N, Ma Q, Lu J (2015) Changes in total nitrogen and amino acid composition of New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida with growth, location and plant parts. Food Chem 186:319–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.016
Boulom S, Robertson J, Hamid N, Ma Q, Lu J (2014) Seasonal changes in lipid, fatty acid, α-tocopherol and phytosterol contents of seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. Food Chem 161:261–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.007
Nabti E, Jha B, Hartmann A (2017) Impact of seaweed on agricultural crop production as biofertilizer. Int J Environ Sci Technol 14(5):1119–1134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-016-1202-1
Bloem E, Albihn A, Hermann L, Lehmann L, Sarvi M, Schaaf T, Schick J, Turtola E, Ylivainio K (2017) Contamination of organic nutrient sources with potentially toxic elements, antibiotics and pathogen microorganism in relation to P fertilizer potential and treatment options for the production of sustainable fertilizers: a review. Sci Total Environ 607-608:225–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.274
The authors are grateful to Graciela Custo, Luciana Cerchietti, and Roberto Servant for their important collaboration during the TXRF analysis (CNEA).
The authors are grateful to Universidad Nacional de San Martín (UNSAM) for its financial support.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have not conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Salomone, V.N., Riera, M. Proximal Composition of Undaria pinnatifida from San Jorge Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina). Biol Trace Elem Res 196, 252–261 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01905-1
- Brown algae use
- Mineral content
- Potentially toxic elements
- Food safety