Serum Copper Homeostasis in Hypertensive Intracerebral Hemorrhage and its Clinical Significance

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Abstract

This study was to investigate the alterations of serum copper homeostasis after hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which is not yet clear. We recruited 85 hypertensive ICH patients and determined their serum levels of total copper (TCu), small molecule copper (SMC), and ceruloplasmin (Cp). Sera from 32 healthy persons and 12 primary hypertension patients were collected and analyzed as well. Serum TCu levels in ICH patients were tested at three time points (on admission, day 3, and day 7) and found to be higher than that in hypertension patients (p < 0.05). The serum SMC levels in hypertension patients and ICH patients at three time points were higher than that in healthy controls (p < 0.05). Higher serum SMC levels on days 3 and 7 were associated with death in the hospital. Additionally, higher serum SMC levels on the seventh day were associated with poor outcome at discharge. High serum Cp levels on admission, as well as low serum Cp levels on the seventh day, were associated with death in the hospital (p = 0.002 and p = 0.034, respectively). Our findings indicated that declines in serum Cp and increases in serum SMC are correlated with lethal or poor outcome in hypertensive ICH patients, possibly as a result of contributions to secondary injury of brain after hemorrhage due to impairment of iron transport and enhanced oxidative stress.

Keywords

Copper homeostasis Hypertension Intracerebral hemorrhage Ceruloplasmin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (project number: 81172088), the Joint Scientific Special Foundation of Guangdong Provincial Department of Science and Technology-Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2012A032500009).

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Emergency Department of Second Affiliated HospitalShantou University Medical CollegeShantouChina
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyShantou University Medical CollegeShantouChina
  3. 3.Craniocerebral Surgery Department of Second Affiliated HospitalShantou University Medical CollegeShantouChina
  4. 4.Bio-analytical LaboratoryShantou University Medical CollegeShantouChina

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