Mitigation of Acute Aluminum Toxicity by Sodium Selenite and N-Acetylcysteine in Adult Male Rats
- 166 Downloads
The objective of this study is to investigate the toxic effects of aluminum and the potential alleviation of selenite and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on this toxicity. Acute aluminum toxicity was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of AlCl3 (30 mg Al3+/kg) for four consecutive days. Al3+ damaged the synthetic capability and regeneration power of liver cells and induced inflammation. It also damaged the kidney and disturbed the lipid profile enhancing the total cholesterol level and LDL-cholesterol level increasing the risks of atherosclerosis. Al3+ reduced the cellular antioxidant milieu typified by the decrease in reduced glutathione, vitamin E, and four antioxidant enzymes and induced lipid peroxidation (LPO). Selenite at 1 mg Se/kg and NAC at 150 mg/kg injected either simultaneously with or after Al3+ mitigated most of these damaging effects probably by the virtue of scavenging the free radicals, binding aluminum and stimulating its excretion and reducing its bioavailability, bolstering the endogenous antioxidant defense systems, stabilizing the cell membrane, and preventing LPO. The beneficial effects of selenite and NAC against aluminum toxicity were also confirmed by the light and electron histopathology study. There were no significant differences between the two regimens used (protection and therapeutic) in the current study probably due to the short time of exposure, and the abrogation of Al3+ toxicity offered by selenite was better than that provided by NAC on the histopathology level.
KeywordsAntioxidants Lipid profile Hepatotoxicity Histopathology
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- 1.Greger JL (1992) Dietary and other sources of aluminium intake. Alum Biol Med 169:26–29Google Scholar
- 17.Paglia DE, Valentine WN (1967) Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Transl Res 70:158–169Google Scholar
- 25.Nido SA, Shituleni SA, Mengistu BM, Liu Y, Khan AZ, Gan F, Kumbhar S, Huang K (2016) Effects of selenium-enriched probiotics on lipid metabolism, antioxidative status, histopathological lesions, and related gene expression in mice fed a high-fat diet. Biol Trace Elem Res 171:399–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 32.Machado JT, Iborra RT, Fusco FB, Castilho G, Pinto RS, Machado-Lima A, Nakandakare ER, Seguro AC, Shimizu MH, Catanozi S (2014) N-acetylcysteine prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress elicited in macrophages by serum albumin drawn from chronic kidney disease rats and selectively affects lipid transporters, ABCA-1 and ABCG-1. Atherosclerosis 237:343–352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Korou LM, Agrogiannis G, Koros C, Kitraki E, Vlachos IS, Tzanetakou I, Karatzas T, Pergialiotis V, Dimitroulis D, Perrea DN (2014) Impact of N-acetylcysteine and sesame oil on lipid metabolism and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis homeostasis in middle-aged hypercholesterolemic mice. Sci Rep 4:6806–6813CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar