Recombinant Production and Characterization of SAC, the Core Domain of Par-4, by SUMO Fusion System
Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), an anticancer protein that interacts with cell surface receptor GRP78, can selectively suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis of cancer cells. The core domain of Par-4 (aa 137–195), designated as SAC, is sufficient to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis without harming normal tissues and organs. Nevertheless, the anticancer effects of SAC have not been determined in ovarian cancer cells. Here, we developed a novel method for producing native SAC in Escherichia coli using a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion system. This fusion system not only greatly improved the solubility of target protein but also enhanced the expression level of SUMO-SAC. After purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, SUMO tag was cleaved from SUMO-SAC fusion protein using SUMO protease to obtain recombinant SAC. Furthermore, we simplified the purification process by combining the SUMO-SAC purification and SUMO tag cleavage into one step. Finally, the purity of recombinant SAC reached as high as 95% and the yield was 25 mg/L. Our results demonstrated that recombinant SAC strongly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells SKOV-3. Immunofluorescence analysis and competitive binding reaction showed that recombinant SAC could specifically induce apoptosis of SKOV-3 cells through combination with cell surface receptor, GRP78. Therefore, we have developed an effective strategy for expressing bioactive SAC in prokaryotic cells, which supports the application of SAC in ovarian cancer therapy.
KeywordsProstate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) SAC Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) One-step purification Ovarian cancer GRP78
This work was funded by the National Natural science Foundation of China (No. 21646005/B060806) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project (No. 2016M601529).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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