Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 179, Issue 8, pp 1336–1345 | Cite as

Single Cell Protein Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using an Optimized Culture Medium Composition in a Batch Submerged Bioprocess

  • Mehrnoosh Hezarjaribi
  • Fatemeh ArdestaniEmail author
  • Hamid Reza Ghorbani


Saccharomyces cerevisiae PTCC5269 growth was evaluated to specify an optimum culture medium to reach the highest protein production. Experiment design was conducted using a fraction of the full factorial methodology, and signal to noise ratio was used for results analysis. Maximum cell of 8.84 log (CFU/mL) was resulted using optimized culture composed of 0.3, 0.15, 1, and 50 g L−1 of ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine, and glucose, respectively at 300 rpm and 35 °C. Glycine concentration (39.32 % contribution) and glucose concentration (36.15 % contribution) were determined as the most effective factors on the biomass production, while Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth had showed the least dependence on ammonium sulfate (5.2 % contribution) and iron sulfate (19.28 % contribution). The most interaction was diagnosed between ammonium sulfate and iron sulfate concentrations with interaction severity index of 50.71 %, while the less one recorded for glycine and glucose concentration was equal to 8.12 %. An acceptable consistency of 84.26 % was obtained between optimum theoretical cell numbers determined by software of 8.91 log (CFU/mL), and experimentally measured one at optimal condition confirms the suitability of the applied method. High protein content of 44.6 % using optimum culture suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a good commercial case for single cell protein production.


Culture medium composition Optimization Saccharomyces cerevisiae Single cell protein Taguchi approach 



The authors wish to thank the offices of Vice Chancellor for Research of Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr and Shahrood branches, for their valued experimental and analytical assistance during the course of this research.


  1. 1.
    Lee, J. Z., Logan, A., Terry, S., & Spear, J. R. (2015). Microbial response to single-cell protein production and brewery wastewater treatment. Microbial Biotechnology, 8(1), 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gour, S., Mathur, N., Singh, A., & Bhatnagar, P. (2015). Single cell protein production: a review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4(9), 251–262.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dhanasekaran, D., Lawanya, S., Saha, S., Thajuddin, N., & Panneerselvam, A. (2011). Production of single cell protein from pineapple waste using yeast. Innovative Romanian Food Biotechnology, 8, 26–32.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Azam, S., Khan, Z., Ahmad, B., Khan, I., & Ali, J. (2014). Production of single cell protein from orange peels using Aspergillus niger and Saccharomycess cerevisiae. Global Journal of Biotechnology & Biochemistry, 9(1), 14–18.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gomashe, A. V., Pounikar, M. A., & Gulhane, P. A. (2014). Liquid whey: a potential substrate for single cell protein production from Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2010. International Journal of Life Sciences, 2(2), 119–123.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rajagopalan, G., & Krishnan, C. (2008). α-Amylase production from catabolite derepressed Bassillus subtilis KCC103 utilizing sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. Bioresource Technology, 99, 3044–3050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Khan, M., Saeed Khan, S., Ahmed, Z., & Tanveer, A. (2010). Production of single cell protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by utilizing fruit wastes. Nanobiotechica Universale, 1(2), 127–132.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kock, S., Preez, J. C., & Kilian, S. G. (2001). The effect of growth factors on anoxic chemostate cultures of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Biotechnology Letters, 23, 957–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thammasittirong, S. N. R., Thirasaktana, T., Thammasittirong, A., & Srisodsuk, M. (2013). Improvement of ethanol production by ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae UVNR56. SpringerPlus, 2, 583–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nishino, S., Okahashi, N., Matsuda, F., & Shimizu, H. (2015). Absolute quantitation of glycolytic intermediates reveals thermodynamic shifts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking PFK1 or ZWF1 genes. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 120, 280–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tian, B., Xu, Y., Cai, W., Huang, Q., Gao, Y., Li, X., & Huang, J. (2013). Molecular cloning and overexpression of an endo-β-1,4-xylanase gene from Aspergillus niger in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae YS2 strain. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 170(2), 320–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Murakami, C., & Kaeberlein, M. (2009). Quantifying yeast chronological life span by outgrowth of aged cells. Journal of Visualized Experiments, 27, 1156–1160.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nasheuer, H. P., Smith, R., Bauerschmidt, C., Grosse, F., & Weisshart, K. (2002). Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication: regulation and mechanisms. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology, 72, 41–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lopez-Mirabal, H. R., & Winther, J. R. (2008). Redox characteristics of the eukaryotic cytosol. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1783, 629–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hohmann, S., Krantz, M., & Nordlander, B. (2007). Yeast osmoregulation. Methods in Enzymology, 428, 29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Owsianowski, E., Walter, D., & Fahrenkrog, B. (2008). Negative regulation of apoptosis in yeast. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1783, 1303–1310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miller-Fleming, L., Giorgini, F., & Outeiro, T. F. (2008). Yeast as a model for studying human neurodegenerative disorders. Biotechnology Journal, 3, 325–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Winkelhausen, E., Velickova, E., Amartey, S. A., & Kuzmanova, S. (2010). Ethanol production by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in lyophilized cellulose gel. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 162(8), 2214–2220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mondal, A. K., Sengupta, S., Bhowal, J., & Bhattacharya, D. K. (2012). Utilization of fruit wastes in producing single cell protein. International Journal of Science Environment, 1(5), 430–438.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ofodile, L. N., Doherty, F., Oyelola, O. T., Oguntuyi, B. L., & Kolawole-Joseph, O. S. (2011). Biodegradation of orange and pineapple peels for production of single cell protein. Journal of Environmental Issues, 1(1), 31–36.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ardestani, F., & Alishahi, F. (2015). Optimization of single cell protein production by Aspergillus niger using Taguchi approach. Journal of Food Biosciences and Technology, 5(2), 73–79.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miller, G. L. (1959). Use of dinitrosalicylic acid regent for determination of reducing sugar. Analytical Chemistry, 31(3), 426–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    INSO 19052. (2015). Cereals and pulses—determination of the nitrogen content and calculation of the crude protein content—Kjeldahl method. Iran. Nat. Standard. Org. 2–10.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ojokoh, A. O., & Uzeh, R. E. (2005). Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass in papaya extract medium. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(11), 1281–1284.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maragatham, C., & Panneerselvam, A. (2011). Production of single cell protein from yeast using papaya extract medium. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2(2), 14–18.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yamada, E. A., & Sgarbieri, V. C. (2005). Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) protein concentrate: preparation, chemical composition, and nutritional and functional properties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(10), 3931–3936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu, B., Song, J., Li, Y., Niu, J., Wang, Z., & Yang, Q. (2013). Towards industrially feasible treatment of potato starch processing waste by mixed cultures. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 171(4), 1001–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehrnoosh Hezarjaribi
    • 1
  • Fatemeh Ardestani
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hamid Reza Ghorbani
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahrood BranchIslamic Azad UniversityShahroodIran
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering, Qaemshahr BranchIslamic Azad UniversityQaemshahrIran
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Engineering, Central Tehran BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations