Differential Effects of Thidiazuron on Production of Anticancer Phenolic Compounds in Callus Cultures of Fagonia indica
- 724 Downloads
Fagonia indica, a very important anticancer plant, has been less explored for its in vitro potential. This is the first report on thidiazuron (TDZ)-mediated callogenesis and elicitation of commercially important phenolic compounds. Among the five different plant growth regulators tested, TDZ induced comparatively higher fresh biomass, 51.0 g/100 mL and 40.50 g/100 mL for stem and leaf explants, respectively, after 6 weeks of culture time. Maximum total phenolic content (202.8 μg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/mL for stem-derived callus and 161.3 μg GAE/mL for leaf-derived callus) and total flavonoid content (191.03 μg quercetin equivalent [QE]/mL for stem-derived callus and 164.83 μg QE/mL for leaf-derived callus) were observed in the optimized callus cultures. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data indicated higher amounts of commercially important anticancer secondary metabolites such as gallic acid (125.10 ± 5.01 μg/mL), myricetin (32.5 ± 2.05 μg/mL), caffeic acid (12.5 ± 0.52 μg/mL), catechin (9.4 ± 1.2 μg/mL), and apigenin (3.8 ± 0.45 μg/mL). Owing to the greater phenolic content, a better 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity (69.45 % for stem explant and 63.68 % for leaf explant) was observed in optimized calluses. The unusually higher biomass and the enhanced amount of phenolic compounds as a result of lower amounts of TDZ highlight the importance of this multipotent hormone as elicitor in callus cultures of F. indica.
KeywordsCallus TDZ Fagonia Phenolic acids Anticancer HPLC
Tariq Khan acknowledges the indigenous PhD fellowship program of the Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan. Bilal Haider Abbasi acknowledges the financial support from the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (PAS), Pakistan.
TK did the research work and wrote the manuscript. BHA conceived the idea and supervised the work. MAK and BHA analyzed the data. BHA and ZKS critically reviewed the manuscript and added to its technical part.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
- 1.Cancer 2015. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/. Accessed 28 Jun 2015.
- 5.Saeed, M. A. (1969) Hamdard pharmacopoeia of Eastern medicine. pp. 41–43. Hamdard Academy, Karachi, Pakistan.Google Scholar
- 7.Saleem, S., Jafri, L., ul Haq, I., Chang, L. C., Calderwood, D., Green, B. D., & Mirza, B. (2014). Plants Fagonia cretica L. and Hedera nepalensis K. Koch contain natural compounds with potent dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitory activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 156, 26–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Alqasoumi, S. I., Yusufoglu, H. S., & Alam, A. (2011). Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of Fagonia schweinfurthii alcoholic extract herbal gel on albino rats. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 5, 1996–2001.Google Scholar
- 9.Rasool, B. K. A., Shehab, N. G., Khan, S. A., & Bayoumi, F. A. (2014). A new natural gel of Fagonia indica Burm f. extract for the treatment of burn on rats. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 27, 73–81.Google Scholar
- 10.Bagban, I. M., Roy, S. P., Chaudhary, A., Das, S. K., Gohil, K. J., & Bhandari, K. K. (2012). Hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of Fagonia indica Burm in carbon tetra chloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2, S1457–S1460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Shaker, K. H., Bernhardt, M., Elgamal, M. H. A., & Seifert, K. (2000). Sulfonated triterpenoid saponins from Fagonia indica. Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung Section C-a Journal of Biosciences, 55, 520–523.Google Scholar
- 16.Bahri-Sahloul, R., Ben Fredj, R., Boughalleb, N., Shriaa, J., Saguem, S., Hilbert, J.-L., Trotin, F., Ammar, S., Bouzid, S., & Harzallah-Skhiri, F. (2014). Phenolic composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts obtained from Crataegus azarolus L. var. aronia (Willd.) Batt. ovaries calli. Journal of Botany, 2014, 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Slinkard, K., & Singleton, V. L. (1977). Total phenol analysis: automation and comparison with manual methods. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 28, 49–55.Google Scholar
- 18.Chang, C.-C., Yang, M.-H., Wen, H.-M. and Chern, J.-C. (2002). Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 10.Google Scholar
- 19.Shah, N. A., Khan, M. R., Naz, K., & Khan, M. A. (2014). Antioxidant potential, DNA protection, and HPLC-DAD analysis of neglected medicinal Jurinea dolomiaea roots. BioMed Research International, 2014, 726241.Google Scholar
- 24.Eman, A. A., Gehan, H. A., Yassin, M., & Mohamed, S. (2010). Chemical composition and antibacterial activity studies on callus of Fagonia arabica L. Academia Arena, 2, 91–106.Google Scholar
- 25.Ebrahimi, M. A., & Payan, A. (2013). Induction of callus and somatic embryogenesis from cotyledon explants of Fagonia indica Burm. Journal of Medicinal Plants and By-Products, 2, 209–214.Google Scholar
- 28.Ali, M., & Abbasi, B. H. (2014). Thidiazuron-induced changes in biomass parameters, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity in callus cultures of Artemisia absinthium L. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 172, 2363–2376.Google Scholar
- 31.Pourebad, N., Motafakkerazad, R., Kosari-Nasab, M., Farsad Akhtar, N., & Movafeghi, A. (2015). The influence of TDZ concentrations on in vitro growth and production of secondary metabolites by the shoot and callus culture of Lallemantia iberica. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 122, 331–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Mayr, C., Wagner, A., Neureiter, D., Pichler, M., Jakab, M., Illig, R., Berr, F., & Kiesslich, T. (2015). The green tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate induces cell cycle arrest and shows potential synergism with cisplatin in biliary tract cancer cells. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15, 194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Nabavi, S., Habtemariam, S., Daglia, M. and Nabavi, S. (2015) Apigenin and breast cancers: from chemistry to medicine. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry.Google Scholar
- 38.Rosendahl, A. H., Perks, C. M., Zeng, L., Markkula, A., Simonsson, M., Rose, C., Ingvar, C., Holly, J. M. P., & Jernström, H. (2015). Caffeine and caffeic acid inhibit growth and modify estrogen receptor and insulin-like growth factor I receptor levels in human breast cancer. Clinical Cancer Research, 21, 1877–1887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Yi, J. L., Shi, S., Shen, Y. L., Wang, L., Chen, H. Y., Zhu, J., & Ding, Y. (2015). Myricetin and methyl eugenol combination enhances the anticancer activity, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction of cis-platin against HeLa cervical cancer cell lines. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, 8, 1116–1127.Google Scholar