Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 179, Issue 1, pp 46–58 | Cite as

Differential Effects of Thidiazuron on Production of Anticancer Phenolic Compounds in Callus Cultures of Fagonia indica

  • Tariq Khan
  • Bilal Haider AbbasiEmail author
  • Mubarak Ali Khan
  • Zabta Khan Shinwari


Fagonia indica, a very important anticancer plant, has been less explored for its in vitro potential. This is the first report on thidiazuron (TDZ)-mediated callogenesis and elicitation of commercially important phenolic compounds. Among the five different plant growth regulators tested, TDZ induced comparatively higher fresh biomass, 51.0 g/100 mL and 40.50 g/100 mL for stem and leaf explants, respectively, after 6 weeks of culture time. Maximum total phenolic content (202.8 μg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/mL for stem-derived callus and 161.3 μg GAE/mL for leaf-derived callus) and total flavonoid content (191.03 μg quercetin equivalent [QE]/mL for stem-derived callus and 164.83 μg QE/mL for leaf-derived callus) were observed in the optimized callus cultures. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data indicated higher amounts of commercially important anticancer secondary metabolites such as gallic acid (125.10 ± 5.01 μg/mL), myricetin (32.5 ± 2.05 μg/mL), caffeic acid (12.5 ± 0.52 μg/mL), catechin (9.4 ± 1.2 μg/mL), and apigenin (3.8 ± 0.45 μg/mL). Owing to the greater phenolic content, a better 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity (69.45 % for stem explant and 63.68 % for leaf explant) was observed in optimized calluses. The unusually higher biomass and the enhanced amount of phenolic compounds as a result of lower amounts of TDZ highlight the importance of this multipotent hormone as elicitor in callus cultures of F. indica.


Callus TDZ Fagonia Phenolic acids Anticancer HPLC 



Tariq Khan acknowledges the indigenous PhD fellowship program of the Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan. Bilal Haider Abbasi acknowledges the financial support from the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (PAS), Pakistan.

Authors’ Contributions

TK did the research work and wrote the manuscript. BHA conceived the idea and supervised the work. MAK and BHA analyzed the data. BHA and ZKS critically reviewed the manuscript and added to its technical part.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tariq Khan
    • 1
  • Bilal Haider Abbasi
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Mubarak Ali Khan
    • 2
  • Zabta Khan Shinwari
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Biotechnology Program, Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT)AbbottabadPakistan
  3. 3.Pakistan Academy of SciencesIslamabadPakistan

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