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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 177, Issue 1, pp 18–35 | Cite as

Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation of Cytotoxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Chitosans Extracted from Three Different Marine Sources

  • Sawssen HajjiEmail author
  • Islem Younes
  • Marguerite Rinaudo
  • Kemel Jellouli
  • Moncef Nasri
Article

Abstract

Chitins in the α and β isomorphs were extracted from three Tunisian marine sources shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus) waste, crab (Carcinus mediterraneus) shells and cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) bones. The obtained chitins were transformed into chitosans, the acid-soluble form of chitin. Chitosans were characterized and their biological activities were compared. Chitosan samples were then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that all chitosans presented identical spectra. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antitumor activities of the extracted chitosans were investigated. In fact, cuttlefish chitosan showed the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity (83 %, 5 mg/ml), whereas it was 79 % and 76 % for shrimp and crab chitosans, respectively. However, in linoleate−β−carotene system, cuttlefish and crab chitosans exerted higher antioxidant activity (82 % and 70 %, respectively), than shrimp chitosan (49 %). Chitosans were tested for their antimicrobial activities against three Gram-negative and four Gram-positive bacteria and five fungi. Chitosans markedly inhibited growth of most bacteria and fungi tested, although the antimicrobial activity depends on the type of microorganism and on the source of chitin. In addition, chitosans showed high antitumor activity which seemed to be dependent on the chitosan characteristics such as acetylation degree and especially the molecular weight.

Keywords

Chitin Chitosan Antitumor Antimicrobial Antioxidant activity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants from Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Tunisia.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sawssen Hajji
    • 1
    Email author
  • Islem Younes
    • 1
  • Marguerite Rinaudo
    • 2
  • Kemel Jellouli
    • 1
  • Moncef Nasri
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Enzyme Engineering and Microbiology, National School of Engineering of SfaxUniversity of SfaxSfaxTunisia
  2. 2.Biomaterials ApplicationsGrenobleFrance

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