Enhanced Production of Artemisinin by Hairy Root Cultivation of Artemisia annua in a Modified Stirred Tank Reactor
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Artemisinin is an important drug commonly used in the treatment of malaria as a combination therapy. It is primarily produced by a plant Artemisia annua, however, its supply from plant is significantly lower than its huge demand and therefore alternative in vitro production routes are sought. Hairy root cultivation could be one such alternative production protocol. Agrobacterium rhizogenes was used to induce hairy roots of A. annua. Statistical optimization of media was thereafter attempted to maximize the biomass/artemisinin production. The growth and product formation kinetics and the significant role of O2 in hairy root propagation were established in optimized media. Mass cultivation of hairy roots was, thereafter, attempted in a modified 3-L Stirred Tank Bioreactor (Applikon Dependable Instruments, The Netherlands) using optimized culture conditions. The reactor was suitably modified to obtain profuse growth of hairy roots by segregating and protecting the growing roots from the agitator rotation in the reactor using a perforated Teflon disk. It was possible to produce 18 g biomass L−1 (on dry weight basis) and 4.63 mg L−1 of artemisinin in 28 days, which increased to 10.33 mg L−1 by the addition of elicitor methyl jasmonate.
KeywordsArtemisia annua Artemisinin Plant cell bioreactors Growth kinetics Oxygen transfer Metabolite over production
The authors thankfully acknowledge the supply of elite seed material supply from CIMAP Lucknow. The financial support by Ministry of Human Resource Development, New Delhi (India) for the execution of the above project is gratefully acknowledged by one of the authors (Ms. Nivedita Patra).
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