Advertisement

Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 149, Issue 1, pp 33–43 | Cite as

Hexavalent Molybdenum Reduction to Molybdenum Blue by S. Marcescens Strain Dr. Y6

  • M. Y. ShukorEmail author
  • S. H. M. Habib
  • M. F. A. Rahman
  • H. Jirangon
  • M. P. A. Abdullah
  • N. A. Shamaan
  • M. A. Syed
Article

Abstract

A molybdate-reducing bacterium has been locally isolated. The bacterium reduces molybdate or Mo6+ to molybdenum blue (molybdate oxidation states of between 5+ and 6+). Different carbon sources such as acetate, formate, glycerol, citric acid, lactose, fructose, glucose, mannitol, tartarate, maltose, sucrose, and starch were used at an initial concentration of 0.2% (w/v) in low phosphate media to study their effect on the molybdate reduction efficiency of bacterium. All of the carbon sources supported cellular growth, but only sucrose, maltose, glucose, and glycerol (in decreasing order) supported molybdate reduction after 24 h of incubation. Optimum concentration of sucrose for molybdate reduction is 1.0% (w/v) after 24 h of static incubation. Ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, valine, OH-proline, glutamic acid, and alanine (in the order of decreasing efficiency) supported molybdate reduction with ammonium sulfate giving the highest amount of molybdenum blue after 24 h of incubation at 0.3% (w/v). The optimum molybdate concentration that supports molybdate reduction is between 15 and 25 mM. Molybdate reduction is optimum at 35 °C. Phosphate at concentrations higher than 5 mM strongly inhibits molybdate reduction. The molybdenum blue produced from cellular reduction exhibits a unique absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. The isolate was tentatively identified as Serratia marcescens Strain Dr.Y6 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogeny.

Keywords

S. marcescens Molybdate-reduction Molybdenum blue 

References

  1. 1.
    Alexander, M. (1999). Biodegradation & bioremediation. San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Capaldi, A., & Proskauer, B. (1896). Zeitschr. f. Hyg. u. Infektionskrankh, 23, 452–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marchal, J. G., & Gerard, T. H. (1948). Travaux du Laboratoire de microbiologie de la Faculté de Pharmacie de Nancy, 16, 11–23.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jan, A. (1939). Bulletin des Sciences Pharmacologiques, 46, 336–339.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Woolfolk, C. A., & Whiteley, H. R. (1962). Journal of Bacteriology, 84, 647–658.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bautista, E. M., & Alex&er, M. (1972). Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 36, 918–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Campbell, M. A., Campbell, A. D., & Villaret, D. B. (1985). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 82, 227–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sugio, T., Tsujita, Y., Katagiri, T., Inagaki, K., & Tano, T. (1988). Journal of Bacteriology, 170(12), 5956–5959.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yong, N. K., Oshima, M., Blake, R. C., & Sugio, T. (1997). Bioscience Biotechnology & Biochemistry, 61, 1523–1526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ghani, B., Takai, M., Hisham, N. Z., Kishimito, N., Ismail, M. I. A., Tano, T., et al. (1993). Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 59, 1176–1180.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ariff, A. B., Rosfarizan, M., Ghani, B., Sugio, T., & Karim, M. I. A. (1997). World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 13, 643–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shukor, M. Y., Shamaan, N. A., Syed, M. A., Lee, C. H., & Karim, M. I. A. (2000). Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, 8(2), 167–172.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shukor, M. Y., Syed, M. A., Lee, C. H., Karim, M. I. A., & Shamaan, N. A. (2002). Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry, 7, 71–72.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shukor, M. Y., Lee, C. H., Omar, I., Karim, M. I. A., Syed, M. A., & Shamaan, N. A. (2003). Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, 11(2), 261–272.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lloyd, J. R. (2003). FEMS Microbiological Review, 27, 411–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yong, F. S. (2000). Mamut copper mine—The untold story. The national seminar on the Malaysian minerals industry “ Minerals: underpinning yesterday’s needs, today’s development & tomorrows’s growth ”, 22nd to 24th June 2000, Pacific Sutera Hotel, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Devereux, R., & Wilkinson, S. S. (2004). In A. D. L. Akkermans, J. D. Van Elsas, & F. J. De Bruijn (Eds.) In molecular microbial ecology manual (2nd ed., pp. 1–17). The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G., & Gibson, T. J. (1994). Nucleic Acids Res, 22, 4673–4680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jukes, T. H., & Cantor, C. R. (1969). In H. N. Munro (Ed.) In mammalian protein metabolism pp. 21–123. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Saitou, N., & Nei, M. (1987). Molecular Biology & Evolution, 4, 406–425.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Felsenstein, J. (1985). Evolution, 39, 783–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Margush, T., & McMorris, F. R. (1981). Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 43, 239–244.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Page, R. D. M. (1996). Computer Applications in the Biosciences, 12, 357–358.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Glenn, J. L., & Crane, F. L. (1956). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 22, 111–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sims, R. P. A. (1961). Analyst, 86, 584–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee, J. D. (1977). Concise inorganic chemistry. New York: Van Reinhold.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sidgwick, N. V. (1984). The chemical elements & their compounds. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hori, T., Sugiyama, M., & Himeno, S. (1988). Analyst, 113, 1639–1644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yoshimura, K., Ishii, M., & Tarutani, T. (1986). Analytical Chemistry, 58, 591–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Y. Shukor
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. H. M. Habib
    • 1
  • M. F. A. Rahman
    • 1
  • H. Jirangon
    • 2
  • M. P. A. Abdullah
    • 1
  • N. A. Shamaan
    • 1
  • M. A. Syed
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular SciencesUniversity Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular SciencesUniversity Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations