The study deals with first time report on encapsulation of chemically characterized Anethum graveolens essential oil within chitosan nanomatrix (Nm-AGEO) using ionic gelation technique to enhance the antimicrobial, antiaflatoxigenic, antioxidant, and in situ efficacy against stored rice biodeterioration. GC-MS analysis of AGEO revealed dill apiol (33.79%), carvone (27.19%), and limonene (13.76%) as major components. Nm-AGEO characterization through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed successful encapsulation of AGEO within chitosan as an encapsulant. Biphasic and sustained release pattern reflected controlled volatilization of bioactives, helpful in shelf-life extension of stored food commodities. Nm-AGEO caused significant impairment in fungal ergosterol biosynthesis and enhanced leakage of vital ions indicating destabilization in plasma membrane integrity. Inhibition of methylglyoxal (aflatoxin inducer) biosynthesis by Nm-AGEO confirmed novel antiaflatoxigenic mechanism of action, suggesting its future exploitation for development of aflatoxin-resistant rice varieties through green transgenics. Nm-AGEO induced impairment in antioxidant defense enzymes (SOD, CAT) and non-enzymatic defense biomolecules GSH and GSSG revealing biochemical mechanism of action. In silico modeling of carvone and limonene with Omt-A and Ver-1 genes suggested molecular mechanism of aflatoxin inhibition. Treatment of rice samples with Nm-AGEO caused significant protection from aflatoxin B1 contamination and lipid peroxidation without altering organoleptic properties. Moreover, favorable safety profile for mammalian system and non-phytotoxic nature of chitosan-fabricated AGEO nanoemulsion-based delivery system recommend attention of food industries for its formulation as potential green preservative.
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Somenath Das is thankful to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) [File No.: 09/013(0774)/2018-EMR-I], New Delhi, India, for the financial support. The authors wish to thank the head and coordinator CAS in Botany, DST-FIST, DST-PURSE, ISLS, and CIFC-IIT, Banaras Hindu University (BHU) for laboratory facilities.
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Das, S., Singh, V.K., Dwivedy, A.K. et al. Anethum graveolens Essential Oil Encapsulation in Chitosan Nanomatrix: Investigations on In Vitro Release Behavior, Organoleptic Attributes, and Efficacy as Potential Delivery Vehicles Against Biodeterioration of Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Food Bioprocess Technol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-021-02589-z
- Anethum graveolens essential oil
- Aflatoxin B1
- Molecular docking