This study evaluated the use of infrared freeze drying for different durations in combination with infrared drying (IRFD-IRD) as a means to reduce the drying time and energy consumption without sacrificing the dried product quality during the production of rose-flavored yogurt melts. Total required drying time and energy consumption were examined and compared with those required by IRFD alone. Comparison was also made in terms of physical properties (color, odor, bulk density, hardness, and rehydration time), total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, antioxidant activities, and sensory characteristics of the final products. IRFD-IRD could reduce 11.36–22.73% of the drying time and 9.99–24.87% of the energy consumption in comparison of IRFD alone. IRFD (3 h)-IRD samples had smaller total color difference than that of IRFD samples. Odor, bulk density, and hardness as well as sensory characteristics of IRFD (3 h)-IRD samples were similar to those of IRFD samples. Furthermore, IRFD (3 h)-IRD and IRFD samples possessed similar retention of bioactive compounds as well as antioxidant activities. Combined IRFD (3 h)-IRD is a promising technique for the processing of rose-flavored yogurt melts. The combined drying method significantly reduced the drying time and energy consumption without affecting the final product quality.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Ahmed, M., Akter, M. S., & Eun, J. B. (2011). Optimization conditions for anthocyanin and phenolic content extraction form purple sweet potato using response surface methodology. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 62(1), 91–96.
Ajila, C. M., Leelavathi, K., & Prasada Rao, U. J. S. (2008). Improvement of dietary fiber content and antioxidant properties in soft dough biscuits with the incorporation of mango peel powder. Journal of Cereal Science, 48(2), 319–326.
Antoniewska, A., Rutkowska, J., & Pineda, M. M. (2019). Antioxidative, sensory and volatile profiles of cookies enriched with freeze-dried Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) fruits. Food Chemistry, 286, 376–387.
Bi, J., Chen, Q., Zhou, Y., Liu, X., Wu, X., & Chen, R. (2014). Optimization of short- and medium-wave infrared drying and quality evaluation of jujube powder. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7(8), 2375–2387.
Bialek, M., Rutkowska, J., Bialek, A., & Adamska, A. (2016). Oxidative stability of lipid fraction of cookies enriched with chokeberry polyphenols extract. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 66(2), 77–84.
Dutta, B., Raghavan, G. S. V., Dev, S. R. S., Liplap, P., Murugesan, R., Anekella, K., & Kaushal, T. (2012). A comparative study on the effects of microwave and high electric field pretreatments on drying kinetics and quality of mushrooms. Drying Technology, 30(8), 891–897.
Ercisli, S. (2007). Chemical composition of fruits in some rose (Rosa spp.) species. Food Chemistry, 104(4), 1379–1384.
Feng, Y., Zhang, M., Fan, K., & Mujumdar, A. S. (2018). Effects of drying methods on quality of fermented plant extract powder. Drying Technology, 36(15), 1913–1919.
Gilliland, S. E. (1989). Acidophilus milk products: a review of potential benefits to consumers. Journal of Dairy Science, 72(10), 2483–2494.
Granato, D., Branco, G. F., Cruz, A. G., de Assis Fonseca Faria, J., & Shah, N. P. (2010). Probiotic dairy products as functional foods. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 9(5), 455–470.
Gu, H. F., Li, C. M., Xu, Y. J., Hu, W. F., Chen, M. H., & Wan, Q. H. (2008). Structural features and antioxidant activity of tannin from persimmon pulp. Food Research International, 41(2), 208–217.
Hnin, K. K., Zhang, M., Devahastin, S., & Wang, B. (2019a). Influence of novel infrared freeze drying of rose flavored yogurt melts on their physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds and energy consumption. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 12(12), 2062–2073.
Hnin, K. K., Zhang, M., Li, Z., & Wang, B. (2019b). Comparison of quality aspects and energy consumption of restructured taro and potato chips under three drying methods. Journal of Food Process Engineering (In press), 42(7). https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.13249.
Hnin, K. K., Zhang, M., Wang, B., & Devahastin, S. (2019c). Different drying methods effect on quality attributes of restructured rose powder-yam snack chips. Food Bioscience, 32, 100486.
Huang, L. L., Zhang, M., Mujumdar, A. S., Sun, D. F., Tan, G. W., & Tang, S. (2009). Studies on decreasing energy consumption for a freeze-drying process of apple slices. Drying Technology, 27(9), 938–946.
Jiang, H., Zhang, M., & Mujumdar, A. S. (2010). Physico-chemical changes during different stages of MFD/FD banana chips. Journal of Food Engineering, 101(2), 140–145.
Jiang, H., Zhang, M., Mujumdar, A. S., & Lim, R. X. (2013). Analysis of temperature distribution and SEM images of microwave freeze drying banana chips. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(5), 1144–1152.
Kamtekar, S., Keer, V., & Patil, V. (2014). Estimation of phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant and alpha amylase inhibitory activity of marketed polyherbal formulation. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 4, 061–065.
Khampakool, A., Soisungwan, S., & Park, S. H. (2019). Potential application of infrared assisted freeze drying (IRAFD) for banana snacks: drying kinetics, energy consumption, and texture. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 99, 355–363.
Kocabiyik, H., Yilmaz, N., Tuncel, N. B., Sumer, S. K., & Buyukcan, M. B. (2014). Drying, energy, and some physical and nutritional quality properties of tomatoes dried with short-infrared radiation. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 8, 516–525.
Kuan, L. Y., Thoo, Y. Y., & Siow, L. F. (2016). Bioactive components, ABTS radical scavenging capacity and physical stability of orange, yellow and purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) powder processed by convection- or vacuum-drying methods. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 51(3), 700–709.
Kumar, A., Singh, M., & Singh, G. (2013). Effect of different pretreatments on the quality of mushrooms during solar drying. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 50(1), 165–170.
Lao, Y., Zhang, M., Devahastin, S., & Ye, Y. (2019). Effect of combined infrared freeze drying and microwave vacuum drying on quality of kale yoghurt melts. Drying Technology (In press), DIO: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2019.1658600.
Li, X., & Pan, Z. (2014). Dry-peeling of tomato by infrared radiative heating: Part I. model development. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7(7), 1996–2004.
Liu, P., Mujumdar, A. S., Zhang, M., & Jiang, H. (2015). Comparison of three blanching treatments on the color and anthocyanin level of the microwave-assisted spouted bed drying of purple flesh sweet potato. Drying Technology, 33(1), 66–71.
Molnar, D., Brnčić, S. R., Vujić, L., Gyimes, E., & Krisch, J. (2015). Characterization of biscuits enriched with black currant and jostaberry powder. Croatian Journal of Food Technology, Biotechnology and Nutrition, 10, 31–36.
Padda, M. S., & Picha, D. H. (2008). Quantification of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity in sweetpotato genotypes. Scientia Horticulturae, 119(1), 17–20.
Pan, Z. L., Shih, C., McHugh, T. H., & Hirschberg, E. (2008). Study of banana dehydration using sequential infrared radiation heating and freeze-drying. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 41(10), 1944–1951.
Pasqualone, A., Bianco, A. M., Paradiso, V. M., Summo, C., Gambacorta, G., & Caponio, F. (2014). Physico-chemical, sensory and volatile profiles of biscuits enriched with grape marc extract. Food Research International, 65, 385–393.
Pei, F., Yang, W.-J., Shi, Y., Sun, Y., Mariga, A. M., Zhao, L.-Y., et al. (2013). Comparison of freeze-drying with three different combinations of drying methods and their influence on colour, texture, microstructure and nutrient retention of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) slices. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7, 702–710.
Qiu, L., Zhang, M., Ju, R., Wang, Y., Chitrakar, B., & Wang, B. (2019). Effect of different drying methods on the quality of restructured rose flower (Rosa rugosa) chips. Drying Technology(In press), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2019.1653318.
Saponjac, V. T., Cetkovic, G., Canadanovic-Brunet, J., Pajin, B., Djilas, S., Petrovic, J., Loncarevic, I., Stajcic, S., & Vulic, J. (2016). Sour cherry pomace extract encapsulated in whey and soy proteins: incorporation in cookies. Food Chemistry, 207, 27–33.
Sasongko, S. B., Djaeni, M., & Utari, F. D. (2019). Kinetic of anthocyanin degradation in roselle extract dried with foaming agent at different temperatures. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 14(2), 320–325.
Sun-Waterhouse, D., Zhou, J., & Wadhwa, S. S. (2011). Effects of adding apple polyphenols before and after fermentation on the properties of drinking yoghurt. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5, 2674–2686.
Turabi, E., Sumnu, G., & Sahin, S. (2007). Optimization of baking of rice cakes in infrared–microwave combination oven by response surface methodology. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 1, 64–73.
Varastegani, B., Zzaman, W., & Yang, T. A. (2015). Investigation on physicochemical and sensory evaluation of cookies substituted with papaya pulp flour. Journal of Food Quality, 38(3), 175–183.
Wang, Y., Zhang, M., Mujumdar, A. S., & Mothibe, K. J. (2013). Microwave-assisted pulse-spouted bed freeze-drying of stem lettuce slices-effect on product quality. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(12), 3530–3543.
Wang, D., Zhang, M., Wang, Y., & Martynenko, A. (2018). Effect of pulsed-spouted bed microwave freeze drying on quality of apple cuboids. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 11(5), 941–952.
Wu, X. F., Zhang, M., & Bhandari, B. (2019). A novel infrared freeze drying (IRFD) technology to lower the energy consumption and keep the quality of cordyceps militaris. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 54, 34–42.
Yi, H., Zhang, L., Hua, C., Sun, K., & Zhang, L. (2010). Extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke and their effects on textural and sensorial characteristics of yogurt. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 3(2), 315–319.
Zaichick, V., & Zaichick, S. (1997). A search for losses of chemical elements during freeze-drying of biological materials. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 218(2), 249–253.
Zielinska, M., & Michalska, A. (2016). Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture. Food Chemistry, 212, 671–680.
This study received financial supports from the National Key R&D Program of China (Contract No. 2017YFD0400901), Jiangsu Province (China) Agricultural Innovation Project (Contract No. CX (17) 2017), the 111 Project (BP0719028), Jinan City Science & Technology Innovation Project of Ten Agricultural Characteristic Industries, Jiangsu Province (China) “Collaborative Innovation Center for Food Safety and Quality Control” Industry Development Program, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory Project of Advanced Food Manufacturing Equipment and Technology (No. FMZ202003).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Hnin, K.K., Zhang, M., Devahastin, S. et al. Combined Infrared Freeze Drying and Infrared Drying of Rose-Flavored Yogurt Melts—Effect on Product Quality. Food Bioprocess Technol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-020-02486-x
- Combined drying method
- Rose powder
- Sensory characteristics