Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 12, Issue 7, pp 1232–1243 | Cite as

Chiffon Cakes Made Using Wheat Flour With/Without Substitution by Highland Barley Powder or Mung Bean Flour: Correlations Among Ingredient Heat Absorption Enthalpy, Batter Rheology, and Cake Porosity

  • Zheng RuanEmail author
  • Chi Zhang
  • Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse
  • Bian-sheng Li
  • Dan-dan Li
Original Paper


This study has demonstrated the feasibility of substituting 50 g/100 g of wheat flour (WF, with a very high gluten content and intermediate amylopectin percentage in starch) with highland barley powder (HBP, with a very high TDF content and amylopectin percentage in starch) or mung bean flour (MBF, with a very high crude protein) for chiffon cake making. Either substitution modified largely batter properties (batter specific gravity and viscosity: WF + HBP > WF + MBF > WF alone), and cake crumb structure setting during baking via affecting starch gelatinization, protein coagulation/aggregation, migration, and coalescence of both fat particles and gas cells. The amylopectin percentage in starch for WF, MBF, and HBP was strongly positively correlated with the flow behavior index (n) of corresponding cake batters (r = 0.892). The cell-to-total area ratio of cakes (WF alone ≈ WF + MBF > WF + HBP) was strongly positively correlated with the enthalpy of heat absorption (△H) of the ingredient powder (r = − 0.678), while strongly negatively correlated with the air-holding capacity, consistency coefficient (K), and n of cake batters (r = − 0.769, − 0.941, and − 0.628, respectively). The cell density/cell-to-total area ratio of cakes (WF + HBP > WF alone > WF + MBF) was strongly positively correlated with the K (r = 0.749) and n (r = 0.880) values of cake batters. The cake with WF + HBP had the greatest pore distribution and highest uniformity. The cake with WF + MBF was the hardest, gummiest, and chewiest and resembled that with WF alone in crumb color with the latter having the lowest specific volume.


Water absorption capacity Batter rheology Cake porosity Air-holding capacity DSC 


Funding Information

This work received financial support from the National Key Research and Development Project (2017YFD0400400), the ZhongShan Major Science and Technology Project (2017A1032), and the Guangdong Science and Technology Department Project (2017A090905030).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zheng Ruan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Chi Zhang
    • 1
  • Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse
    • 1
    • 3
  • Bian-sheng Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dan-dan Li
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Food Science and EngineeringSouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product SafetyGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.School of Chemical SciencesThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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