Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 12, Issue 7, pp 1220–1231 | Cite as

Production of a Functional Yogurt Powder Fortified with Nanoliposomal Vitamin D Through Spray Drying

  • Seid Mahdi JafariEmail author
  • Sabike Vakili
  • Danial Dehnad
Original Paper


In recent years, the problem of vitamin D deficiency has been echoed by extensive researches. Nutritionists believe that fortification of food products through this micronutrient is the best approach to solve this problem. In this study, properties of yogurt powders fortified with nano-liposomal encapsulated vitamin D were evaluated. The Taguchi method was deployed to design the treatments (16 runs) with 5 independent variables including temperature (160–190 °C), milk protein concentrate (0–3%w/w), modified starch content (0–3%w/w), gum Arabic (0–3%w/w) and maltodextrin (10–25%w/w), each at 4 levels. Dependent variables comprised of moisture content, solubility, colour and production (drying) yield. Analysis of our data revealed that the contribution order of different independent variables on responses was as follows: milk protein concentrate (30%), modified starch (28%), maltodextrin (22%), temperature (17%) and gum Arabic (3%). The average particle size of nano-liposomes containing vitamin D was about 120 nm. Also, SEM micrographs showed that addition of maltodextrin caused spherical powder particles with an even distribution in the matrix including yogurt and drying aids while incorporating milk protein concentrate, gum Arabic and modified starch brought about shrinkage as well as unevenness in the shape and size of powder particles.


Yogurt powder Fortification Nano-liposomes Encapsulation Vitamin D3 



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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Materials and Process Design EngineeringGorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural ResourcesGorganIran

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