Impact of Microwave-Assisted Heating on the pH Value, Color, and Flavor Compounds in Glucose-Ammonium Model System
The effect of microwave and oil bath heating on the evolution of Maillard reaction including pH, color and degree of glycation, and flavor compounds was investigated. Maillard reaction was induced by heating glucose-ammonium system for 10–30 min at 100–120 °C. Results indicated that microwave heating was more effective than traditional oil bath heating in Maillard reaction. The more decrease of pH values, higher A420, lower whiteness and chroma, and stronger glycation were recorded in the model system heated by microwave. Moreover, microwave heating did not affect the contents of pyrazines extracted by dichloromethane but affect the formation of D-limonene extracted by ethyl acetate from model system. In addition, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopentene-1-one, 3-methyl-2-pyrazinyl-methanol, and 6-methyl-2-pyrazinyl-methanol were firstly reported as flavor compounds in the glucose-ammonium system.
KeywordsMicrowave heating Flavor compounds Color changes Maillard reaction
All authors acknowledge the National Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31771931), Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province of China (No. 2014B020205001 and No. 2013B051000015).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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