Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 1248–1258 | Cite as

Impact of Microwave-Assisted Heating on the pH Value, Color, and Flavor Compounds in Glucose-Ammonium Model System

  • He Li
  • Chun-Jian Wu
  • Shu-Juan Yu
Original Paper


The effect of microwave and oil bath heating on the evolution of Maillard reaction including pH, color and degree of glycation, and flavor compounds was investigated. Maillard reaction was induced by heating glucose-ammonium system for 10–30 min at 100–120 °C. Results indicated that microwave heating was more effective than traditional oil bath heating in Maillard reaction. The more decrease of pH values, higher A420, lower whiteness and chroma, and stronger glycation were recorded in the model system heated by microwave. Moreover, microwave heating did not affect the contents of pyrazines extracted by dichloromethane but affect the formation of D-limonene extracted by ethyl acetate from model system. In addition, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopentene-1-one, 3-methyl-2-pyrazinyl-methanol, and 6-methyl-2-pyrazinyl-methanol were firstly reported as flavor compounds in the glucose-ammonium system.


Microwave heating Flavor compounds Color changes Maillard reaction 



All authors acknowledge the National Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31771931), Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province of China (No. 2014B020205001 and No. 2013B051000015).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Food Science and EngineeringSouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product SafetyGuangzhouChina

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