Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 10, Issue 8, pp 1509–1520 | Cite as

Roasting and Colouring Curves for Coffee Beans with Broad Time-Temperature Variations

  • D. Pramudita
  • T. Araki
  • Y. Sagara
  • A. H. Tambunan
Original Paper


The effects of time and temperature on change in bean colour and kinetics of coffee roasting covering pre-roasting and over-roasting condition were investigated. Arabica coffee beans (Colombia Excelso) were dried or roasted in an oven at constant temperatures (140, 180, 200, 220, 260, and 300 °C) to obtain the profiles of mass loss and colour change. Changes in roasting rate from the first stage (high rate) to the second (low rate) were found to occur at different levels of roast loss for different roasting temperatures. Roasting curves were obtained by normalising the data of mass reductions, which comprised solid and moisture, to the initial solid mass. Changes in bean colour were found to follow a certain path regardless of the roasting temperature, as shown by the characteristic colouring curve, and were less affected by the temperature compared to the roast loss. A method of predicting the bean colour during roasting was also presented by analysing the relationships among the L*, a* and b* values.


Coffee Roasting curve Colouring curve Roasting temperature 



Surface area of coffee bean (m2)


Red-green colour value


Yellow-blue colour value


Content of a material at time t (kg kg−1)


Hue angle (°)


Lumped reaction rate (kg kg−1 min−1)


Lightness value (0–100)


Initial mass of component (kg)


Mass of component at time t (kg)


Mass of dry beans (kg)


Mass of green beans (kg)


Mass of roasted beans (kg)


Initial mass of solid (kg)


Mass of wet beans (kg)


A constant


Drying rate (kg kg−1 min−1)


Roast loss (kg kg−1)


Time (minute)


Roasting temperature (°C)


Volume of coffee bean (m3)


Moisture content (kg kg−1)


Moisture content at time t n (kg kg−1)



This research was supported by Ajinomoto General Foods, Inc. and Food Kansei Communications. Special thanks are also due to Dr. Tomoaki Sōma for providing experimental devices and Mr. Zulhaj Rizki for the discussions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Pramudita
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. Araki
    • 1
  • Y. Sagara
    • 3
  • A. H. Tambunan
    • 4
  1. 1.Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringBandung Institute of Technology, ITB Ganesha CampusBandungIndonesia
  3. 3.Food Kansei CommunicationsTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical and Biosystem EngineeringBogor Agricultural UniversityBogorIndonesia

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