Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 10, Issue 8, pp 1412–1421 | Cite as

Effect of Microwave Radiation Pretreatment of Rice Flour on Gluten-Free Breadmaking and Molecular Size of β-Glucans in the Fortified Breads

  • Sandra Pérez-Quirce
  • Felicidad Ronda
  • Athina Lazaridou
  • Costas G. Biliaderis
Original Paper


Cereal β-glucan concentrates can be used in gluten-free breads to improve dough handling properties and quality of final products as well as to enhance their nutritional value; however, the presence of endogenous β-glucanases in rice flour, in combination with prolonged mixing, fermentation, and proofing time, can cause a substantial reduction in β-glucan molecular weight, affecting detrimentally their efficacy for bioactivity. In this study, microwave (MIWA) heating was applied to the rice flours before breadmaking at different flour water contents (13–25%) and treatment times (0-4 min) to reduce β-glucanase activity. Gluten-free breads made from the MIWA-treated rice flours were fortified with oat β-glucan concentrate to enhance their nutritional profile. The molecular weight of added β-glucan in the final products increased with increasing both flour water content and time of MIWA treatment, reflecting the magnitude of residual β-glucanase activity in the flour. Pretreatment with MIWA radiation for 4 min of the rice flour tempered at 25% moisture resulted in negligible residual β-glucanase activity and preserved to a great extent the molecular weight of β-glucans in the enriched breads. End-product quality was not affected by flour MIWA pretreatment, and even a slightly higher loaf specific volume was noted for breads made from the MIWA-treated flours (4 min MIWA at 25% moisture content) compared to that of untreated flour. These findings can contribute to the improvement of nutritional value of rice-based gluten-free breads for celiac consumers as well as of any β-glucan-containing yeast-leavened bakery product without altering its sensorial attributes. Additional studies are still required for further evaluation of the effect of more intense microwave treatment on rice flour and its application on breadmaking.


β-Glucan molecular weight β-Glucanase inactivation Gluten-free bread Microwave treatment Rice flour 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Spanish Institutions Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) (Projects AGL2012-35088 and AGL2015-63849-C2-2-R).


  1. Adebowale, K. O., Afolabi, T. A., & Olu-Owolabi, B. I. (2005). Hydrothermal treatments of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) starch. Food Hydrocolloids, 19, 974–983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad Mir, S., Ahmad Shah, M., Rashid Naik, H., & Ahmad Zargar, I. (2016). Influence of hydrocolloids on dough handling and technological properties of gluten-free breads. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 51, 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aman, P., Rimsten, L., & Andersson, R. (2004). Molecular weight distribution of β-glucan in oat-based foods. Cereal Chemistry, 81, 356–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC). (2000). Method 44–19. In Anonymous approved methods of the AACC (10th ed.). St. Paul: The Association.Google Scholar
  5. Andersson, A. A. M., Armo, E., Grangeon, E., Fredriksson, H., Andersson, R., & Aman, P. (2004). Molecular weight and structure units of (1-3, 1-4)-β-glucans in dough and bread made from hull-less barley milling fractions. Journal of Cereal Science, 40, 195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersson, A. A. M., Ruegg, N., & Aman, P. (2008). Molecular weight distribution and content of water-extractable β-glucan in rye crisp bread. Journal of Cereal Science, 47, 399–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersson, R., Fransson, G., Tietjen, M., & Aman, P. (2009). Content and molecular-weight distribution of dietary fiber components in whole-grain rye flour and bread. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 2004–2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Caballero, P. A., Gomez, M., & Rosell, C. M. (2007). Bread quality and dough rheology of enzyme-supplemented wheat flour. European Food Research Technology, 224, 525–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Demirkesen, I., Kelkar, S., Campanella, O. H., Sumnu, G., Sahin, S., & Okos, M. (2014). Characterization of structure of gluten-free breads by using X-ray Microtomography. Food Hydrocolloids, 36, 37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. EFSA. (2011a). Scientific opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to barley beta-glucans and lowering of blood cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to article 14 of regulation (EC) no. 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 9(2470), 14.Google Scholar
  11. EFSA. (2011b). Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to beta-glucans from oats and barley and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1236, 1299), increase in satiety leading to a reduction in energy intake (ID 851, 852), reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 821, 824), and “digestive function” (ID 850) pursuant to Article 13 (1) of Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 9(2207), 21.Google Scholar
  12. EFSA. (2011c). Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk (ID 819, 822) pursuant to Article 13 (1) of Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 9(2249), 13.Google Scholar
  13. Foschia, M., Horstmann, S., Arendt, E. K., & Zannini, E. (2016). Nutritional therapy—facing the gap between coeliac disease and gluten-free food. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 239, 113–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gujral, H. S., Haros, M., & Rosell, C. M. (2003). Starch hydrolyzing enzymes for retarding the staling of rice bread. Cereal Chemistry, 80(6), 750–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hager, A. S., & Arendt, E. K. (2013). Influence of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), xanthan gum and their combination on loaf specific volume, crumb hardness and crumb grain characteristics of gluten-free breads based on rice, maize, teff and buckwheat. Food Hydrocolloids, 32, 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hager, A. S., Ryan, L. A. M., Schwab, C., Ganzle, M. G., O’Doherty, J. V., & Arendt, E. K. (2011). Influence of the soluble fibres inulin and oat beta-glucan on quality of dough and bread. European Food Research and Technology, 232(3), 405–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hormdok, R., & Noomhorm, A. (2007). Hydrothermal treatments of rice starch for improvement of rice noodle quality. LWT–Food Science and Technology, 40, 1723–1731.Google Scholar
  18. Houben, A., Hoechstoetter, A., & Becker, T. (2012). Possibilities to increase the quality in gluten-free bread production: an overview. European Food Research and Technology, 235(2), 195–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kivela, R., Sontag-Strohm, T., Loponen, J., Tuomainen, P., & Nystrom, L. (2011). Oxidative and radical mediated cleavage of β-glucan in thermal treatments. Carbohydrate Polymers, 85, 645–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lazaridou, A., Biliaderis, C. G., Micha-Screttas, M., & Steele, B. R. (2004). Acomparative study on structure-function relations of mixed linkage (1→3), (1→4) linear β-D-glucans. Food Hydrocolloids, 18, 837–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lazaridou, A., Marinopoulou, A., Matsoukas, N. P., & Biliaderis, C. G. (2014). Impact of flour particle size and autoclaving on β-glucan physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of barley rusks as assessed by in vitro assays. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre, 4(1), 58–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Luo, Z., He, X., Fu, X., Luo, F., & Gao, Q. (2006). Effect of microwave radiation on the physicochemical properties of normal corn, waxy corn and amylomaize V starches. Starch-Starke, 58, 468–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moriartey, S., Temelli, F., & Vasanthan, T. (2010). Effect of formulation and processing treatments on viscosity and solubility of extractable barley beta-glucan in bread dough evaluated under in vitro conditions. Cereal Chemistry, 87(1), 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Olayinka, O. O., Adebowale, K. O., & Olu-Owolabi, B. I. (2008). Effect of heat-moisture treatment on physicochemical properties of white sorghum starch. Food Hydrocolloids, 22, 225–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Perez-Quirce, S., Collar, C., & Ronda, F. (2014). Significance of healthy viscous dietary fibres on the performance of gluten-free rice-based formulated breads. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49, 1375–1382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Perez-Quirce, S., Ronda, F., Melendre, C., Lazaridou, A., & Biliaderis, C. G. (2016). Inactivation of endogenous rice flour β-glucanase by microwave radiation and impact on physico-chemical properties of the treated flour. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 9(9), 1562–1573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pinkrová, J., Hubácková, B., Kadlec, P., Příhoda, J., & Bubník, Z. (2003). Changes of starch during microwave treatment of rice. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 21, 176–184.Google Scholar
  28. Pyler, E. J., & Gorton, L. A. (2000). Fundamental bakery dough processes. In Baking science & technology, volume II: formulation and production. Kansas City: Sosland Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  29. Rieder, A., Ballance, S., & Knutsen, S. H. (2015). Viscosity based quantification of endogenous β-glucanase activity in flour. Carbohydrate Polymers, 115, 104–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ronda, F., Perez-Quirce, S., Lazaridou, A., & Biliaderis, C. G. (2015). Effect of barley and oat β-glucan concentrates on gluten-free rice-based doughs and bread characteristics. Food Hydrocolloids, 48, 197–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ronda, F., Pérez-Quirce, S., & Villanueva, M. (2016). Rheological properties of gluten-free bread doughs. In J. Ahmed, P. Ptaszek, S. Basu, & W. P. Elsevier (Eds.), Cap 12 Relationship with bread quality, in Advances in food rheology and its applications (pp. 297–334).Google Scholar
  32. Sciarini, L. S., Ribotta, P. D., Leon, A. E., & Perez, G. T. (2010). Effect of hydrocolloids on gluten-free batter properties and bread quality. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45, 2306–2313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sollid, L. M., & Lundin, K. E. A. (2009). Diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease. Mucosal Immunology, 2, 3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tosh, S. M., Brummer, Y., Wolever, T. M. S., & Wood, P. J. (2008). Glycemic response to oat bran muffins treated to vary molecular weight of β-glucan. Cereal Chemistry, 85, 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Trogh, I., Courtin, C. M., Andersson, A. A. M., Aman, P., Sorensen, J. F., & Delcour, J. A. (2004). The combined use of hull-less barley flour and xylanase as a strategy for wheat/hull-less barley breads with increased arabinoxylan and (1-3, 1-4) β- D-glucan levels. Journal of Cereal Science, 40, 257–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). (2005). Food labeling: Soluble dietary fibre from certain foods and coronary heart disease. Federal Register, 70, 76150–76162.Google Scholar
  37. Vatandoust, A., Ragaee, S. M., Wood, P. J., Tosh, S. M., & Seetharaman, K. (2012). Detection, localization, and variability of endogenous β-glucanase in wheat kernels. Cereal Chemistry, 89(1), 59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Watcharatewinkul, Y., Puttanlek, C., Rungsardthong, V., & Uttapap, D. (2009). Pasting properties of a heat-moisture treated canna starch in relation to its structural characteristics. Carbohydrate Polymers, 75, 505–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wolever, T. M. S., Tosh, S. M., Gibbs, A. L., Brand-Miller, J., Duncan, A. M., Hart, V., Lamarche, B., Thomson, B. A., Duss, R., & Wood, P. J. (2010). Physicochemical properties of oat β-glucan influence its ability to reduce serum LDL cholesterol in humans: a randomized clinical trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 92, 723–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wood, P. J. (2007). Cereal beta-glucans in diet and health. Journal of Cereal Science, 46, 230–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra Pérez-Quirce
    • 1
  • Felicidad Ronda
    • 1
  • Athina Lazaridou
    • 2
  • Costas G. Biliaderis
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering, Food Technology, College of Agricultural and Forestry EngineeringUniversity of ValladolidPalenciaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and Technology, School of AgricultureAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations