Male Fertility Preservation

  • J. Abram McBride
  • Larry I. Lipshultz
Andrology and Infertility (L Lipshultz, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Andrology and Infertility


Purpose of Review

With improvements in cancer treatment outcomes and an increase in cancer survivorship, understanding the importance of fertility preservation options prior to undergoing cancer treatment is essential. Therefore, we review herein the effect of cancer and its treatment on male fertility, the rationale for sperm cryopreservation, options for sperm retrieval, ART outcomes, and experimental options.

Recent Findings

Recent data update fertility outcomes with newer cancer therapies and provide longitudinal insight into survivor paternity with and without fertility preservation. Likewise, updated ART outcomes and future preservation options are discussed.


The effect of cancer and its treatment on spermatogenesis is well established. Sperm cryopreservation is the best pre-treatment insurance for the opportunity of future fertility. Post-therapy patients may also achieve fertility restoration with ART, using cryopreserved or freshly obtained sperm. Meanwhile, utilization of cryopreserved testicular stem cells for future transfer or for in vitro maturation represents exciting alternatives on the horizon.


Oncofertility Male fertility preservation Sperm cryopreservation Male cancer treatment 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

J. Abram McBride, M.D. and Larry I. Lipshultz each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2014 [database on the Internet]. National Cancer Institute. 2017. Available from: Accessed: April, 2017.
  2. 2.
    Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62(1):10–29. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kort JD, Eisenberg ML, Millheiser LS, Westphal LM. Fertility issues in cancer survivorship. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64(2):118–34. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ventura SJ, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD. Revised birth and fertility rates for the United States, 2000 and 2001. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2003;51(4):1–18.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Green DM, Kawashima T, Stovall M, Leisenring W, Sklar CA, Mertens AC, et al. Fertility of male survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(2):332–9. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Williams DH, Karpman E, Sander JC, Spiess PE, Pisters LL, Lipshultz LI. Pretreatment semen parameters in men with cancer. J Urol. 2009;181(2):736–40. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bernie AM, Ramasamy R, Stember DS, Stahl PJ. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration: indications, techniques and outcomes. Asian J Androl. 2013;15(1):40–3. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Coward RM, Kovac JR, Smith RP, Lipshultz LI. Fertility preservation in young men treated for malignancies: options for precancer treatment. Sex Med Rev. 2013;1(3):123–34. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee SJ, Schover LR, Partridge AH, Patrizio P, Wallace WH, Hagerty K, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations on fertility preservation in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(18):2917–31. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Loren AW, Mangu PB, Beck LN, Brennan L, Magdalinski AJ, Partridge AH, et al. Fertility preservation for patients with cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(19):2500–10. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Munoz M, Santaballa A, Segui MA, Beato C, de la Cruz S, Espinosa J, et al. SEOM Clinical Guideline of fertility preservation and reproduction in cancer patients (2016). Clin Transl Oncol. 2016;18(12):1229–36. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schover LR, Brey K, Lichtin A, Lipshultz LI, Jeha S. Oncologists' attitudes and practices regarding banking sperm before cancer treatment. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(7):1890–7. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Salonia A, Capogrosso P, Castiglione F, Russo A, Gallina A, Ferrari M, et al. Sperm banking is of key importance in patients with prostate cancer. Fertil Steril. 2013;100(2):367–72 e1. Scholar
  14. 14.
    JW-C Cheng EK. Etiology of Cancer-Induced Male Infertility. In: A Majzoub AA, editor. The Complete Guide to Male Fertility Preservation. Springer International Publishing; 2018. p. 3–18.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carroll PR, Whitmore WF Jr, Herr HW, Morse MJ, Sogani PC, Bajorunas D, et al. Endocrine and exocrine profiles of men with testicular tumors before orchiectomy. J Urol. 1987;137(3):420–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hansen PV, Trykker H, Andersen J, Helkjaer PE. Germ cell function and hormonal status in patients with testicular cancer. Cancer. 1989;64(4):956–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    El-Sakka AI, Hassoba HM, Sayed HM, Tayeb KA. Pattern of endocrinal changes in patients with sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2005;2(4):551–8. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ratnasingam J, Karim N, Paramasivam SS, Ibrahim L, Lim LL, Tan AT, et al. Hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction amongst nasopharyngeal cancer survivors. Pituitary. 2015;18(4):448–55. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sabanegh ES Jr, Ragheb AM. Male fertility after cancer. Urology. 2009;73(2):225–31. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lip SZ, Murchison LE, Cullis PS, Govan L, Carachi R. A meta-analysis of the risk of boys with isolated cryptorchidism developing testicular cancer in later life. Arch Dis Child. 2013;98(1):20–6. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Walsh TJ, Croughan MS, Schembri M, Chan JM, Turek PJ. Increased risk of testicular germ cell cancer among infertile men. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(4):351–6. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Trost LW, Brannigan RE. Oncofertility and the male cancer patient. Curr Treat Options in Oncol. 2012;13(2):146–60. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jung A, Schuppe HC. Influence of genital heat stress on semen quality in humans. Andrologia. 2007;39(6):203–15. Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marmor D, Elefant E, Dauchez C, Roux C. Semen analysis in Hodgkin's disease before the onset of treatment. Cancer. 1986;57(10):1986–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    •• Caponecchia L, Cimino G, Sacchetto R, Fiori C, Sebastianelli A, Salacone P, et al. Do malignant diseases affect semen quality? Sperm parameters of men with cancers. Andrologia. 2016;48(3):333–40. This is a large, single center, retrospective analysis of semen parameters in cancer patients presenting for sperm cryopreservation stratified by cancer diagnosis, demonstrating worse baseline parameters in testis cancer and lymphoma patients, confirming previous data. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    •• Depalo R, Falagario D, Masciandaro P, Nardelli C, Vacca MP, Capuano P, et al. Fertility preservation in males with cancer: 16-year monocentric experience of sperm banking and post-thaw reproductive outcomes. Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2016;8(6):412–20. This is the largest single center review of semen parameters in male cancer patients presenting for cryopreservation with ART outcome data using banked sperm for IVF/ICSI establishing fertilization, implantation, pregnancy and live birth outcomes. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    •• DiNofia AM, Wang X, Yannekis G, Ogle S, Hobbie WL, Carlson CA, et al. Analysis of semen parameters in a young cohort of cancer patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64(2):381–6. The largest review of sperm cryopreservation in peri-pubertal and post-pubertal male cancer patients demonstrating the feasibility and high success rate in this population. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    O'Flaherty C, Vaisheva F, Hales BF, Chan P, Robaire B. Characterization of sperm chromatin quality in testicular cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma patients prior to chemotherapy. Hum Reprod (Oxford, England). 2008;23(5):1044–52. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Said TM, Tellez S, Evenson DP, Del Valle AP. Assessment of sperm quality, DNA integrity and cryopreservation protocols in men diagnosed with testicular and systemic malignancies. Andrologia. 2009;41(6):377–82. Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stahl O, Eberhard J, Cavallin-Stahl E, Jepson K, Friberg B, Tingsmark C, et al. Sperm DNA integrity in cancer patients: the effect of disease and treatment. Int J Androl. 2009;32(6):695–703. Scholar
  31. 31.
    McDowell S, Harrison K, Kroon B, Ford E, Yazdani A. Sperm DNA fragmentation in men with malignancy. Fertil Steril. 2013;99(7):1862–6. Scholar
  32. 32.
    •• Martinez G, Walschaerts M, Le Mitouard M, Borye R, Thomas C, Auger J, et al. Impact of Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma and their treatments on sperm aneuploidy: a prospective study by the French CECOS network. Fertil Steril. 2017;107(2):341–50 e5. This study represents the largest, prospective cohort to date evaluating the impact of cancer and its treatment on sperm aneuploidy demonstrating worse aneuploidy rates with treatment lasting up to 2 years but returning to baseline beyond 2 years. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stahl O, Boyd HA, Giwercman A, Lindholm M, Jensen A, Kjaer SK, et al. Risk of birth abnormalities in the offspring of men with a history of cancer: a cohort study using Danish and Swedish national registries. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103(5):398–406. Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liguori G, Trombetta C, Bucci S, Benvenuto S, Amodeo A, Ocello G, et al. Semen quality before and after orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2008;80(3):99–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Petersen PM, Skakkebaek NE, Rorth M, Giwercman A. Semen quality and reproductive hormones before and after orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer. J Urol. 1999;161(3):822–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Masterson TA, Cary C, Rice KR, Foster RS. The evolution and technique of nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. Urol Clin N Am. 2015;42(3):311–20. Scholar
  37. 37.
    • Abdul-Muhsin HM, L'Esperance JO, Fischer K, Woods ME, Porter JR, Castle EP. Robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in testicular cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2015;112(7):736–40. The authors present one of the largest multi-institutional series of primary and post-chemotherapy robotic RPLND demonstrating non-inferior outcomes to the open approach. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Asgari MA, Safarinejad MR, Shakhssalim N, Soleimani M, Shahabi A, Amini E. Sexual function after non-nerve-sparing radical cystoprostatectomy: a comparison between ileal conduit urinary diversion and orthotopic ileal neobladder substitution. Int Braz J Urol. 2013;39(4):474–83. Scholar
  39. 39.
    Capogrosso P, Salonia A, Briganti A, Montorsi F. Postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction: a review. World J Men's Health. 2016;34(2):73–88. Scholar
  40. 40.
    Haberman K, Wittig K, Yuh B, Ruel N, Lau C, Wilson TG, et al. The effect of nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical cystoprostatectomy on erectile function in a preoperatively potent population. J Endourol. 2014;28(11):1352–6. Scholar
  41. 41.
    • Liu Z, Huang M, Kang L, Wang L, Lan P, Cui J, et al. Prognosis and postoperative genital function of function-preservative surgery of pelvic autonomic nerve preservation for male rectal cancer patients. BMC Surg. 2016;16:12. One of the largest rectal cancer series to date employing nerve sparing techniques demonstrating improved rate of erectile function recovery using nerve sparing techniques. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    •• Conti SL, Eisenberg ML. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer. Asian J Androl. 2016;18(3):420–4. The authors present a concise review of the implications of advanced paternal age and overall increased risk for congenital abnormalities, cancer and psychiatric disorders. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Meistrich ML. Effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on spermatogenesis in humans. Fertil Steril. 2013;100(5):1180–6. Scholar
  44. 44.
    Meseguer M, Garrido N, Remohi J, Pellicer A, Simon C, Martinez-Jabaloyas JM, et al. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and ICSI in patients with permanent azoospermia after chemotherapy. Hum Reprod (Oxford, England). 2003;18(6):1281–5.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Howell SJ, Shalet SM. Effect of cancer therapy on pituitary-testicular axis. Int J Androl. 2002;25(5):269–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bokemeyer C, Schmoll HJ, van Rhee J, Kuczyk M, Schuppert F, Poliwoda H. Long-term gonadal toxicity after therapy for Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Hematol. 1994;68(3):105–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Green DM, Liu W, Kutteh WH, Ke RW, Shelton KC, Sklar CA, et al. Cumulative alkylating agent exposure and semen parameters in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(11):1215–23. Scholar
  48. 48.
    Meistrich ML, Wilson G, Brown BW, da Cunha MF, Lipshultz LI. Impact of cyclophosphamide on long-term reduction in sperm count in men treated with combination chemotherapy for Ewing and soft tissue sarcomas. Cancer. 1992;70(11):2703–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Waxman J, Terry Y, Rees LH, Lister TA. Gonadal function in men treated for acute leukaemia. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1983;287(6399):1093–4.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Petersen PM, Hansen SW, Giwercman A, Rorth M, Skakkebaek NE. Dose-dependent impairment of testicular function in patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy for germ cell cancer. Ann Oncol. 1994;5(4):355–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Huyghe E, Zairi A, Nohra J, Kamar N, Plante P, Rostaing L. Gonadal impact of target of rapamycin inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) in male patients: an overview. Transpl Int. 2007;20(4):305–11. Scholar
  52. 52.
    Longo I, Sanchez-Mateos P, Lazaro P, Longo N. Azoospermia in a patient receiving interferon alpha for a stage III melanoma. Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82(5):389–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shash E, Bassi S, Cocorocchio E, Colpi GM, Cinieri S, Peccatori FA. Fatherhood during imatinib. Acta Oncol (Stockholm, Sweden). 2011;50(5):734–5. Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mariani S, Giona F, Basciani S, Brama M, Gnessi L. Low bone density and decreased inhibin-B/FSH ratio in a boy treated with imatinib during puberty. Lancet (London, England). 2008;372(9633):111–2. Scholar
  55. 55.
    van Beek RD, Smit M, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, de Jong FH, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, van den Bos C, et al. Inhibin B is superior to FSH as a serum marker for spermatogenesis in men treated for Hodgkin's lymphoma with chemotherapy during childhood. Hum Reprod (Oxford, England). 2007;22(12):3215–22. Scholar
  56. 56.
    Whitehead E, Shalet SM, Blackledge G, Todd I, Crowther D, Beardwell CG. The effects of Hodgkin's disease and combination chemotherapy on gonadal function in the adult male. Cancer. 1982;49(3):418–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    •• Bujan L, Walschaerts M, Brugnon F, Daudin M, Berthaut I, Auger J, et al. Impact of lymphoma treatments on spermatogenesis and sperm deoxyribonucleic acid: a multicenter prospective study from the CECOS network. Fertil Steril. 2014;102(3):667–74 e3. The authors present one of the largest and only prospective cohort of male cancer patients evaluated for sperm DNA damage demonstrating higher DNA fragmentation before and after cancer treatment. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bujan L, Walschaerts M, Moinard N, Hennebicq S, Saias J, Brugnon F, et al. Impact of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for testicular germ cell tumors on spermatogenesis and sperm DNA: a multicenter prospective study from the CECOS network. Fertil Steril. 2013;100(3):673–80. Scholar
  59. 59.
    O'Flaherty C, Hales BF, Chan P, Robaire B. Impact of chemotherapeutics and advanced testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma on sperm deoxyribonucleic acid integrity. Fertil Steril. 2010;94(4):1374–9. Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fraass BA, Kinsella TJ, Harrington FS, Glatstein E. Peripheral dose to the testes: the design and clinical use of a practical and effective gonadal shield. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1985;11(3):609–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Howell S, Shalet S. Gonadal damage from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 1998;27(4):927–43.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rowley MJ, Leach DR, Warner GA, Heller CG. Effect of graded doses of ionizing radiation on the human testis. Radiat Res. 1974;59(3):665–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Speiser B, Rubin P, Casarett G. Aspermia following lower truncal irradiation in Hodgkin's disease. Cancer. 1973;32(3):692–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Brennemann W, Brensing KA, Leipner N, Boldt I, Klingmuller D. Attempted protection of spermatogenesis from irradiation in patients with seminoma by D-Tryptophan-6 luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. Clin Investig. 1994;72(11):838–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Littley MD, Shalet SM, Beardwell CG, Ahmed SR, Applegate G, Sutton ML. Hypopituitarism following external radiotherapy for pituitary tumours in adults. Q J Med. 1989;70(262):145–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Shalet SM, Tsatsoulis A, Whitehead E, Read G. Vulnerability of the human Leydig cell to radiation damage is dependent upon age. J Endocrinol. 1989;120(1):161–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sklar C. Reproductive physiology and treatment-related loss of sex hormone production. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1999;33(1):2–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    •• Chow EJ, Stratton KL, Leisenring WM, Oeffinger KC, Sklar CA, Donaldson SS, et al. Pregnancy after chemotherapy in male and female survivors of childhood cancer treated between 1970 and 1999: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17(5):567–76. Very large retrospective cohort study evaluating the otehrwise poorly described outcome of pregnancy and live birth in male cancer survivors demonstrating lower rates overall and even worse rates in men treated with alkylating agents compared to sibling controls. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Menon S, Rives N, Mousset-Simeon N, Sibert L, Vannier JP, Mazurier S, et al. Fertility preservation in adolescent males: experience over 22 years at Rouen University Hospital. Hum Reprod (Oxford, England). 2009;24(1):37–44. Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jaffe TM, Kim ED, Hoekstra TH, Lipshultz LI. Sperm pellet analysis: a technique to detect the presence of sperm in men considered to have azoospermia by routine semen analysis. J Urol. 1998;159(5):1548–50. Scholar
  71. 71.
    Feldschuh J, Brassel J, Durso N, Levine A. Successful sperm storage for 28 years. Fertil Steril. 2005;84(4):1017. Scholar
  72. 72.
    Saito K, Suzuki K, Iwasaki A, Yumura Y, Kubota Y. Sperm cryopreservation before cancer chemotherapy helps in the emotional battle against cancer. Cancer. 2005;104(3):521–4. Scholar
  73. 73.
    •• Grover NS, Deal AM, Wood WA, Mersereau JE. Young men with cancer experience low referral rates for fertility counseling and sperm banking. J Oncol Pract. 2016;12(5):465–71. The authors present the largest single institution evaluation of oncology counseling and referral rates for male fertility preservation, which confirmed previous findings of poor counseling and referral rates. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hoshi M, Oebisu N, Takada J, Iwai T, Tsuruta R, Nakamura H. Pre-chemotherapy preservation of fertility in male patients with high-grade malignant bone and soft tissue tumors. Mol Clin Oncol. 2014;2(6):1111–4. Scholar
  75. 75.
    •• Sonnenburg DW, Brames MJ, Case-Eads S, Einhorn LH. Utilization of sperm banking and barriers to its use in testicular cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 2015;23(9):2763–8. One of the larger, more recent fertility preservation center review providing answers to how cancer survivors utilize their banked specimens specifically younger and childless men are more likely to bank, 18% of men utilized their banked specimens, and 82% of used specimens resulted in paternity success. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Girasole CR, Cookson MS, Smith JA Jr, Ivey BS, Roth BJ, Chang SS. Sperm banking: use and outcomes in patients treated for testicular cancer. BJU Int. 2007;99(1):33–6. Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sheth KR, Sharma V, Helfand BT, Cashy J, Smith K, Hedges JC, et al. Improved fertility preservation care for male patients with cancer after establishment of formalized oncofertility program. J Urol. 2012;187(3):979–86. Scholar
  78. 78.
    •• Ferrari S, Paffoni A, Filippi F, Busnelli A, Vegetti W, Somigliana E. Sperm cryopreservation and reproductive outcome in male cancer patients: a systematic review. Reprod Biomed Online. 2016;33(1):29–38. The most recent systematic review of utilization of cryopreserved sperm, highlighting only 16% of men choose to discard their samples over time. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Brackett NL, Kafetsoulis A, Ibrahim E, Aballa TC, Lynne CM. Application of 2 vibrators salvages ejaculatory failures to 1 vibrator during penile vibratory stimulation in men with spinal cord injuries. J Urol. 2007;177(2):660–3. Scholar
  80. 80.
    Schatte EC, Orejuela FJ, Lipshultz LI, Kim ED, Lamb DJ. Treatment of infertility due to anejaculation in the male with electroejaculation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. J Urol. 2000;163(6):1717–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Berookhim BM, Mulhall JP. Outcomes of operative sperm retrieval strategies for fertility preservation among males scheduled to undergo cancer treatment. Fertil Steril. 2014;101(3):805–11. Scholar
  82. 82.
    •• Bernie AM, Mata DA, Ramasamy R, Schlegel PN. Comparison of microdissection testicular sperm extraction, conventional testicular sperm extraction, and testicular sperm aspiration for nonobstructive azoospermia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2015;104(5):1099–103 e1–3. The authors present a concise review and meta-analysis of available data and demonstrated the superiority of micro-TESE for sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermia patients. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Friedler S, Raziel A, Strassburger D, Soffer Y, Komarovsky D, Ron-El R. Testicular sperm retrieval by percutaneous fine needle sperm aspiration compared with testicular sperm extraction by open biopsy in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Hum Reprod (Oxford, England). 1997;12(7):1488–93.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sheynkin YR, Ye Z, Menendez S, Liotta D, Veeck LL, Schlegel P. Controlled comparison of percutaneous and microsurgical sperm retrieval in men with obstructive azoospermia. Hum Reprod (Oxford, England). 1998;13(11):3086–9.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Devroey P, Liu J, Nagy Z, Goossens A, Tournaye H, Camus M, et al. Pregnancies after testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in non-obstructive azoospermia. Hum Reprod (Oxford, England). 1995;10(6):1457–60.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Shah R. Surgical sperm retrieval: techniques and their indications. Indian J Urol. 2011;27(1):102–9. Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schlegel PN, et al. Hum Reprod (Oxford, England). 1999;14(1):131–5.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Schrader M, Muller M, Sofikitis N, Straub B, Krause H, Miller K. "Onco-tese": testicular sperm extraction in azoospermic cancer patients before chemotherapy-new guidelines? Urology. 2003;61(2):421–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Descombe L, Chauleur C, Gentil-Perret A, Aknin-Seifer I, Tostain J, Levy R. Testicular sperm extraction in a single cancerous testicle in patients with azoospermia: a case report. Fertil Steril. 2008;90(2):443 e1–4. Scholar
  90. 90.
    Haddad N, Al-Rabeeah K, Onerheim R, Zini A. Is ex vivo microdissection testicular sperm extraction indicated for infertile men undergoing radical orchiectomy for testicular cancer? Case report and literature review. Fertil Steril. 2014;101(4):956–9. Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rives N, Perdrix A, Hennebicq S, Saias-Magnan J, Melin MC, Berthaut I, et al. The semen quality of 1158 men with testicular cancer at the time of cryopreservation: results of the French National CECOS Network. J Androl. 2012;33(6):1394–401. Scholar
  92. 92.
    Damani MN, Master V, Meng MV, Burgess C, Turek P, Oates RD. Postchemotherapy ejaculatory azoospermia: fatherhood with sperm from testis tissue with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(4):930–6. Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hsiao W, Stahl PJ, Osterberg EC, Nejat E, Palermo GD, Rosenwaks Z, et al. Successful treatment of postchemotherapy azoospermia with microsurgical testicular sperm extraction: the Weill Cornell experience. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(12):1607–11. Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wald M, Ross LS, Prins GS, Cieslak-Janzen J, Wolf G, Niederberger CS. Analysis of outcomes of cryopreserved surgically retrieved sperm for IVF/ICSI. J Androl. 2006;27(1):60–5. Scholar
  95. 95.
    •• Del Vento F, Vermeulen M, de Michele F, Giudice MG, Poels J, des Rieux A, et al. Tissue engineering to improve immature testicular tissue and cell transplantation outcomes: one step closer to fertility restoration for prepubertal boys exposed to gonadotoxic treatments. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(1) The authors present an excellent review of available data to date regarding the techniques and success using immature testicular tissue for transplantation, highlighting the bright future for this technology.
  96. 96.
    Wyns C, Curaba M, Petit S, Vanabelle B, Laurent P, Wese JF, et al. Management of fertility preservation in prepubertal patients: 5 years' experience at the Catholic University of Louvain. Hum Reprod (Oxford, England). 2011;26(4):737–47. Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sato T, Katagiri K, Gohbara A, Inoue K, Ogonuki N, Ogura A, et al. In vitro production of functional sperm in cultured neonatal mouse testes. Nature. 2011;471(7339):504–7. Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jahnukainen K, Hou M, Petersen C, Setchell B, Soder O. Intratesticular transplantation of testicular cells from leukemic rats causes transmission of leukemia. Cancer Res. 2001;61(2):706–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jurewicz M, Hillelsohn J, Mehta S, Gilbert BR. Fertility preservation in pubertal and pre-pubertal boys with cancer. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2018;15(3):234–43. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Male Reproductive Medicine and Surgery, Scott Department of UrologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations