Recent Advances in Giant Cell Arteritis
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Purpose of Review
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common systemic vasculitis. GCA is categorized as a granulomatous vasculitis of large and medium size vessels. Majority of the symptoms and signs of GCA result from involvement of the aorta and its branches intra- and extracranial. Temporal artery biopsy continues to be the cardinal diagnostic procedure despite new imaging modalities for diagnosing GCA with cranial involvement. Great advances in awareness have led to improvement in preventing irreversible vision loss due to early diagnosis.
The cause of GCA has not been elucidated but major progress has been made in the knowledge of its pathogenesis leading to new therapeutic targets, particularly inhibition of interleukin 6. IL 6 plays a key role in the regulation of TH17/Tregs imbalance in GCA and appears to correlate with clinical disease activity in GCA. All of this has led to the first FDA (food and drug administration) approved treatment for GCA, Tocilizumab. Abatacept and Ustekinumab are promising targets for therapy in LVV but still need further research.
This paper is a review of the recent progress in the understanding of GCA pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
KeywordsReview of epidemiology Pathophysiology Diagnosis Treatment and prognosis for GCA
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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