Purpose of Review
To examine mass shootings in youth including mass shooting trends, risk and protective factors for emotional sequelae, mental health, prevention of mass shootings, and the assessment and treatment of survivors.
Many youth are exposed to gun violence, with a smaller subset exposed to mass shootings. While youth have varying responses to mass shootings, possibly due to risk and protective factors as well as level of exposure, the mental health outcomes are significant and include posttraumatic stress, suicide, depression, substance abuse, and anxiety. Efforts at developing effective prevention and treatment programs are still underway but generally take a tiered public health approach.
Mass shootings have significant mental health outcomes for youth survivors, particularly those with direct exposure or risk factors. Continued efforts are needed to better understand the effects of mass shootings and how to prevent them from occurring as well as how to best address the needs of survivors.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
Miller M, Hemenway D. The relationship between firearms and suicide: a review of the literature. Aggress Violent Behav. 1999;4:59–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789(97)00057-8.
Sledjeski EM, Speisman B, Dierker LC. Does number of lifetime traumas explain the relationship between PTSD and chronic medical conditions? Answers from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). J Behav Med. 2004;31:341–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-008-9158-3.
Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu J, Arias E. Deaths: final data for 2017. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2019;68:1–77.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Risk Behavior Survey: data summary and trends report. 2007–2017. 2018. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/trendsreport.pdf. .
Woodrow Cox J, Rich S, Chiu A, Muyskens J, Ulmanu M. More than 240,000 students have experienced gun violence at school since Columbine. Washington Post. 2018 Nov. https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2018/local/school-shootings-database .
General Methodology. Gun violence archive. 2013. https://www.gunviolencearchive.org/methodology. .
Shultz JM, Cohen AM, Muschert GW, Flores de Apodaca R. Fatal school shootings and the epidemiological context of firearm mortality in the United States. Disast Health. 2013;1(2):84–101. https://doi.org/10.4161/dish.26897.
Brewin CR, Andrews B, Valentine JD. Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68(5):748–66. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.5.748.
Finkelhor D, Turner HA, Shattuck A, Hamby SL. Prevalence of childhood exposure to violence, crime, and abuse: results from the national survey of children’s exposure to violence. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(8):746–54. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0676.
Schmidt NB, Zvolensky MJ, Maner JK. Anxiety sensitivity: prospective prediction of panic attacks and Axis I pathology. J Psychiatr Res. 2006;40(8):691–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.07.009.
Elwood LS, Hahn KS, Olatunji BO, Williams NL. Cognitive vulnerabilities to the development of PTSD: a review of four vulnerabilities the proposal of an integrative vulnerability model. Clin Psychol Rev. 2009 Feb;29(1):87–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2008.10.002.
Bomyea J, Risbrough V, Lang AJ. A consideration of select pre-trauma factors as key vulnerabilities in PTSD. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;32(7):630–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.06.008.
Hardaway CR, Sterrett-Hong E, Larkby CA, Cornelius MD. Family resources as protective factors for low-income youth exposed to community violence. J Youth Adolesc. 2016;45(7):1309–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0410-1.
•• Crum KI, Cornacchio D, Coxe S, Green JG, Comer JS. A latent profile analysis of co-occurring youth posttraumatic stress and conduct problems following community trauma. J Child Fam Stud. 2018;27(11):3638–49. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1205-2An article examining co-occuring posttraumatic stress symptoms and conduct problems following the Boston Marathon bombing.
Marsee MA. Reactive aggression and posttraumatic stress in adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2018;37(3):519–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410802148152.
Scott BG, Lapré GE, Marsee MA, Weems CF. Aggressive behavior and its associations with posttraumatic stress and academic achievement following a natural disaster. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2014;43:43–50. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2013.807733.
Allwood MA, Bell DJ, Horan J. Posttrauma numbing of fear, detachment, and arousal predict delinquent behaviors in early adolescence. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2011;40:659–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.597081.
Blair RJR, Peschardt KS, Budhani S, Mitchell DGV, Pine DS. The development of psychopathy. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006;47:262–75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01596.x.
Bryushkova L, Zai C, Chen S, Pappa I, Mileva V, Tiemeier H, et al. FKBP5 interacts with maltreatment in children with extreme, pervasive, and persistent aggression. Psychiatry Res. 2016;242:277–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.09.052.
Strom IF, Thoreson S, Wentzel-Larsen T, Hjemdal OK, Lein L, Dyb G. Exposure to life adversity in high school and later work participation: a longitudinal population based study. J Adolesc. 2013;36(6):1143–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.09.003.
Norris FH, Friedman MJ, Watson PJ. 60000 disaster victims speak. Part II. Summary and implications of the disaster mental health research. Psychiatry. 2002;65:240–60. https://doi.org/10.1521/psyc.188.8.131.5269.
Kellermann AL, Rivara FP. Silencing the science on gun research. JAMA. 2013;309(6):549–50. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.208207.
SAMHSA Disaster Technical Assistance Center Supplemental Research Bulletin. Mass violence and behavioral health. 2017. https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/dtac/srb-mass-violence-behavioral-health.pdf. .
Shultz JM, Thoresen S, Flynn BW, Muschert GW, Shaw JA, Espinel Z, et al. Multiple vantage points on the mental health effects of mass shootings. Curr Psychiat Rep. 2014;16(9):469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-014-0469-5.
Novotney A. What happens to the survivors: long term outcomes for survivors of mass shootings are improved with the help of community connections and continuing access to mental health support. Monitor on psychology. 2018 Sept. http://www.apa.org/monitor/2018/09/survivors. Accessed.
Norris FH. Impact of mass shootings on survivors, families and communities. PTSD Res Quart. 2007;18:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1037/e721592007-001.
Travers Á, McDonagh T, Elklit A. Youth responses to school shootings: a review. Curr Psychiat Rep. 2018;20(6):47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-018-0903-1.
•• Lowe SR, Galea S. The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2017;18(1):62–82. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838015591572Thorough review on mental health outcomes associated with mass shootings as well as risk factors for development of psychopathology.
Norris FH, Friedman MJ, Watson PJ, Byrne CM, Diaz E, Kaniasty K. 60000 disaster victims speak. Part I. an empirical review of the empirical literature, 1981-2001. Psychiatry. 2002;65:207–39. https://doi.org/10.1521/psyc.184.108.40.20673.
Fletcher KE. Childhood posttraumatic stress disorder. In: Mash EJ, Barkley RA, editors. Child psychopathology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 2003. p. 330–71.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
• Mclaughlin K, Kar JA. Aftermath of the parkland shooting: a case report of post-traumatic stress disorder in an adolescent survivor. Cureus. 2019;11(11):e6146. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.6146This is the only case report to date describing clinical presentation and treatment approach of an adolescent female survivor of the Parkland School Shooting.
•• Slone M, Mann S. Effects of war, terrorism and armed conflict on young children: A systematic review. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2016;47(6):950–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-016-0626-7A comprehensive systematic review demonstrating how young children can be profoundly affected by traumatic experiences.
Pynoos RS, Frederick C, Nader K, Arroyo W, Steinberg A, Eth S, et al. Life threat and post-traumatic stress in school age children. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987;44:1057–63. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800240031005.
Hawkins NA, McIntosh DN, Silver RC, Holman A. Early responses to school violence. J Emot Abus. 2003;4(3–4):197–223. https://doi.org/10.1300/J135v04n03_12.
Hendin H, Haas AP. Suicide and guilt as manifestations of PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148(5):586–91. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.148.5.586.
Schwarz ED, Kowalski JM. Malignant memories: PTSD in children and adults after a school shooting. J Acad Child Adolesc Psychiat. 1991;30:936–44. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-1991111000-00011.
Stensland SØ, Zwart JA, Wentzel-Larsen T, Dyb G. The headache of terror: A matched cohort study of adolescents from the Utøya and the HUNT study. Neurology. 2018;90(2):e111–8. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000004805.
Flaherty L, Becker D, Daley M, Green H, Hendren R, Gadpaille W, et al. Trauma and adolescence II: the impact of trauma. In: Adolescent psychiatry: developmental and clinical studies. New York: The analytic press/Taylor & Francis group; 2003. p. 165–200.
Suomalainen L, Haravuori H, Berg N, Kiviruusu O, Marttunen M. A controlled follow-up study of adolescents exposed to a school shooting--psychological consequences after four months. Eur Psychiat. 2011;26(8):490–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.07.007.
Beland L-P, Kim D. The effect of high school shootings on schools and student performance. Educ Eval Policy Anal. 2016;38(1):113–26. https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373715590683.
•• Stene LE, Schultz JH, Dyb G. Returning to school after a terror attack: a longitudinal study of school functioning and health in terror-exposed youth. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019;28(3):319–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-018-1196-yLongitudinal examination of functioning in youth after a large mass shooting.
Hafstad GS, Dyb G, Jensen TK, Steinberg AM, Pynoos RS. PTSD prevalence and symptom structure of DSM-5 criteria in adolescents and young adults surviving the 2011 shooting in Norway. J Affect Disord. 2014;169:40–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.055.
Bugge I, Dyb G, Stensland SØ, Ekeberg Ø, Wentzel-Larsen T, Diseth TH. Physical injury and posttraumatic stress reactions. A study of the survivors of the 2011 shooting massacre on Utøya Island, Norway. J Psychosom Res. 2015;79(5):384–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.09.005.
Pynoos RS, Nader K, Frederick C, et al. Grief reactions in school age children following a sniper attack at school. Isr J Psychiat Relat Sci. 1987;24:53–63. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.147.11.1526.
Rowhani-Rahbar A, Zatzick DF, Rivara FP. Long-lasting consequences of gun violence and mass shootings. JAMA. 2019;321(18):1765–6. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.5063.
Palinkas L, Prussing E, Reznik V, Landsverk J. The San Diego East County school shootings: a qualitative study of community-level post-traumatic stress. Prehospital Disaster Med. 2004;19(1):113–21. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X00001564.
Shultz JM, Muschert GW, Dingwall A, Cohen AM. The Sandy hook elementary school shooting as tipping point “this time is different”. Disast Health. 2013;1:65–73. https://doi.org/10.4161/dish.27113.
Haravuori H, Suomalainen L, Berg N, Kiviruusu O, Marttunen M. Effects of media exposure on adolescents traumatized in a school shooting. J Trauma Stress. 2011;24:70–7. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20605.
Thompson RR, Jones NM, Holman EA, Silver RC. Media exposure to mass violence events can fuel a cycle of distress. Sci Adv. 2019;5(4):eaav3502. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav3502.
Stretesky PB, Hogan MJ. Columbine and student perceptions of safety: a quasi-experimental study. J Crim Just. 2001;29(5):429–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0047-2352(01)00100-3.
Brener N, Simon T, Anderson M, Barrios LC. Effect of the incident at columbine on student’s violence and suicide-related behaviors. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(3):146–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(01)00433-0.
Astor RA., Bear GG, Bradshaw CP, Cornell DG, Espelage DL, Flannery D, et al. Call for action to prevent gun violence in the United States of America. 2018. https://curry.virginia.edu/sites/default/files/projects/Call%20for%20Action%20FINAL%20for%20DISSEMINATION%202-28-18-3-5-18%20Corrections_422pm.pdf.
•• Dimaggio C, Avraham J, Berry C, Bukur M, Feldman J, Klein M, et al. Changes in US mass shooting deaths associated with the 1994–2004 federal assault weapons ban. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2019;86(1):11–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002060Examination on the legislative changes and how they are associated with the likelihood of mass shootings occurring.
•• Kingston B, Mattson SA, Dymnicki A, Spier E, Fitzgerald M, Shipman K, et al. Building schools’ readiness to implement a comprehensive approach to school safety. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2018;21:433–49. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-018-0264-7Comprehensive discussion of a program for addressing school safety including essential components of such programs and how to best prepare schools for them.
David-Ferdon C, Vivolo-Kantor AM, Dahlberg LL, Marshall KJ, Rainford N, Hall JE. A comprehensive technical package for the prevention of youth violence and associated risk behaviors. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2016. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/yv-technicalpackage.pdf
Berger E. Multi-tiered approaches to trauma-informed care in schools: a systematic review. Sch Ment Heal. 2019;11:650–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-019-09326-0.
Von der Embse N, Rutherford L, Mankin A, Jenkins A. Demonstration of a trauma-informed assessment to intervention model in a large urban school district. Sch Ment Heal. 2019;11:276–89. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-018-9294.
Arora PG, Collins TA, Dart EH, Hernández S, Fetterman H, Doll H. Multi-tiered systems of support for school-based mental health: a systematic review of depression interventions. Sch Ment Heal. 2019;11:240–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-019-09314-4.
Scott TM, Gage NA, Hirn RG, Lingo AS, Burt J. An examination of the association between MTSS implementation fidelity measures and student outcomes. Prev School Failure: Altern Educ Child Youth. 2019;63(4):308–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988X.2019.1605971.
Gage NA, Whitford DK, Katsiyannis A. A review of schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports as a framework for reducing disciplinary exclusions. J Spec Educ. 2018;52(3):142–51. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022466918767847.
Lankford A, Adkins KG, Madfis E. Are the deadliest mass shootings preventable? An assessment of leakage, information reported to law enforcement, and firearms acquisition prior to attacks in the United States. J Contemp Crim Justice. 2019;35(3):315–41. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043986219840231.
• Schonfeld DJ, Demaria T. Supporting children after school shootings. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2020;67:397–411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2019.12.006An article describing common reactions by children after mass shootings, and how physicians can support children after mass shootings.
Cornell DG, Sheras P. Guidelines for responding to student threats of violence. Longmont, CO: Sopris West; 2016.
Cornell DG. Threat assessment as a school violence prevention strategy. Criminol Public Policy. 2020;19:235–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9133.12471.
• Leuschner V, Fiedler N, Schultze M, Ahlig N, Göbel K, Sommer F, et al. Prevention of targeted school violence by responding to students’ psychosocial crises: the NETWASS program. Child Dev. 2017;88(1):68–82. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12690Quasi-experimental study of a program directly targeting school violence with some outcome data.
Nekvasil E, Cornell D. Student threat assessment associated with positive school climate in middle schools. J Threat Assess Manag. 2015;2:98–113. https://doi.org/10.1037/tam0000038.
Cornell D, Allen K, Fan X. A randomized controlled study of the Virginia student threat assessment guidelines in grades K-12. Sch Psychol Rev. 2012;41:100–15.
• Danese A, Smith P, Chitsabesan P, Dubicka B. Child and adolescent mental health amidst emergencies and disasters. Br J Psychiatry. 2020;216(3):159–62. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2019.244Brief article synthesizing ways to address child and adolescent mental health before and after a disaster.
Pfefferbaum B, North CS. Child disaster mental health services: a review of the system of care, assessment approaches, and evidence base for intervention. Curr Psychiat Rep. 2016;18(1):5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-015-0647-0.
Eklund K, Rossen E. Guidance for trauma screening in schools, National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice. Delmar, NY; 2016. https://www.ncmhjj.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Screening-Eklund_rossen-FINAL-FORMATTED-1.pdf
Hamiel D, Wolmer L, Pardo-Aviv L, Laor N. Addressing the needs of preschool children in the context of disasters and terrorism: assessment, prevention, and intervention. Curr Psychiat Rep. 2017;19(7):40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-017-0792-8.
Soneson E, Howarth E, Ford T, Humphrey A, Jones PB, Coon JT, et al. Feasibility of school-based identification of children and adolescents experiencing, or at-risk of developing, mental health difficulties: a systematic review. Prev Sci. 2020;21(5):581–603. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-020-01095-6.
Boffa JW, Norr AM, Raines AM, Albanese BJ, Short NA, Schmidt NB. Anxiety sensitivity prospectively predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms following a campus shooting. Behav Ther. 2016;47:367–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2016.02.006.
Lai BS, Osborne MC, Lee N, Self-Brown S, Esnard A, Kelly M. Trauma-informed schools: child disaster exposure, community violence, and somatic symptoms. J Affect Disord. 2018;238:586–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.05.062.
Martin NC, Felton JW, Cole DA. Predictors of youths’ posttraumatic stress symptoms following a natural disaster: the 2010 Nashville, Tennessee, flood. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2016;45(3):335–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2014.982279.
Duerr HA. Out of the mouth of babes: School shooting survivors share their insights, concerns. Psychiatr Times. 2019;36(6):1–24.
Hoagwood KE, Olin SS, Wang NM, Pollock M, Acri M, Glaeser E, et al. Developing a sustainable child and family service system after a community tragedy: lessons from Sandy Hook. J Commun Psychol. 2017;45:748–64. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21890.
Vernberg EM, Hambrick EP, Cho B, Hendrickson M. Positive psychology and disaster mental health: strategies for working with children and adolescents. J Clin Psychol. 2016;72:1333–47. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22289.
Holt T, Jensen T, Dyb G, Wentzel-Larsen T. Emotional reactions in parents of the youth who experienced the Utøya shooting on 22 July 2011; results from a cohort study. BMJ Open. 2017;7(10):e015345. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015345.
Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Deblinger E. Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. New York: The Guilford Press; 2006. p. 1–355.
McDermott BM, Cobham VE. A stepped-care model of post-disaster child and adolescent mental health service provision. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2014;5(1):24294.
Salloum A, Scheeringa MS, Cohen JA, Storch EA. Development of stepped care trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for young children. Cogn Behav Pract. 2014 Feb 1;21(1):97–108.
Brymer M, Layne C, Jacobs A, Pynoos R, Ruzek J, Steinberg A, et al. Psychological first aid field operations guide. Los Angeles: National Child Traumatic Stress Network; 2006.
Berkowitz S, Bryant R, Brymer M, Hamblen J, Jacobs A, Layne C, et al. Skills for psychological recovery: Field operations guide. Washington (DC): National Center for PTSD (US Department of Veterans Affairs) and National Child Traumatic Stress Network (funded by US Department of Health and Human Services and jointly coordinated by University of California, Los Angeles, and Duke University); 2010.
Brymer M, Taylor M, Escudero P, Jacobs A, Kronenberg M, Macy R, et al. Psychological first aid for schools: field operations manual. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: National Child Traumatic Stress Network; 2012.
• Hylton E, Malley A, Ironson G. Improvements in adolescent mental health and positive affect using creative arts therapy after a school shooting: a pilot study. Arts Psychother. 2019;65:101586 Study directly examining a treatment modality with youth post school shooting.
Jaycox LH, Langley AK, Hoover SA. Cognitive behavioral intervention for trauma in schools (CBITS). Santa Monica: Rand Corporation; 2018.
Jaycox LH, Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Walker DW, Langley AK, Gegenheimer KL, et al. Children’s mental health care following Hurricane Katrina: a field trial of trauma-focused psychotherapies. J Trauma Stress. 2010;23(2):223–31.
Sugiyama C, Niikawa Y, Ono H, Ito D, Sato T, Inoue Y, et al. School-based intervention program based on cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese students affected by the Hiroshima heavy rain disaster of July 2018. Jpn Psychol Res. 2020;62(2):151–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpr.12282.
Forman-Hoffman VL, Zolotor AJ, McKeeman JL, Blanco R, Knauer SR, Lloyd SW, et al. Comparative effectiveness of interventions for children exposed to non-relational traumatic events. Pediatrics. 2013;131(3):526–39. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-3846.
Mavranezouli I, Megnin-Viggars O, Daly C, Dias S, Welton NJ, Stockton S, et al. Psychological treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: a network meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2020;50(4):542–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13094.
Dawson K, Joscelyne A, Meijer C, Steel Z, Silove D, Bryant RA. A controlled trial of trauma-focused therapy versus problem-solving in Islamic children affected by civil conflict and disaster in Aceh, Indonesia. Aust New Zeal J Psychiat. 2018;52(3):253–61. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867417714333.
Cohen E, Gadassi R. The function of play for coping and therapy with children exposed to disasters and political violence. Curr Psychiat Rep. 2018;20(5):31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-018-0895-x.
de Roos C, Greenwald R, den Hollander-Gijsman M, Noorthoorn E, van Buuren S, De Jongh A. A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in disaster-exposed children. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2011;2(1):5694. https://doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.5694.
Fallucco EM, Joseph MM, Leung K, Smotherman C, Blackmore ER. Post-parkland shooting: development and assessment of experiential training in adolescent depression and post-traumatic stress disorder for primary care providers. Acad Pediatr. 2020;20(3):430–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2019.10.013.
Rossin-Slater M, Schnell M, Schwandt H, Trejo S, Uniat L. Local exposure to school shootings and youth antidepressant use. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019;117(38):23484–9.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
The original online version of this article was revised: The original version of this article unfortunately contained two mistakes. In the 2nd paragraph and last sentence under ‘Assessment’ section, the following is the corrected sentence. And in the 3rd paragraph and 6th sentence under ‘Treatment’ section, the following is the corrected sentence.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Child and Adolescent Disorders
About this article
Cite this article
Cimolai, V., Schmitz, J. & Sood, A.B. Effects of Mass Shootings on the Mental Health of Children and Adolescents. Curr Psychiatry Rep 23, 12 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-021-01222-2
- Children mass shooting
- School shootings
- Mental health sequelae of mass shooting
- Risk and protective factors
- Mental health interventions post mass shooting exposure